When the world gets closer.

We help you see farther.

Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter.

THE CONVERSATION

Black Artists And Writers Give Another Voice To Appalachia

Known as Afrilachia, the African-American culture that spawned in the rural areas around West Virginia and Kentucky is finally seeing the light of day.

Teacher T.R. Delaney, photographed in Hancock County, Tennessee (1939)
Teacher T.R. Delaney, photographed in Hancock County, Tennessee (1939)
Jameka Hartley, Amy M. Alvarez

Appalachia, in the popular imagination, stubbornly remainspoor and white. Open a dictionary and you'll see Appalachian described as a "native or inhabitant of Appalachia, especially one of predominantly Scotch-Irish, English, or German ancestry."

Read J.D. Vance's "Hillbilly Elegy" and you'll enter a world that's white, poor and uncultured, with few, if any, people of color.

But as Black poets and scholars living in Appalachia, we know that this simplified portrayal obscures a world that is far more complex. It has always been a place filled with diverse inhabitants and endowed with a lush literary history. Black writers like Effie Waller Smith have been part of this cultural landscape as far back as the 19th century. Today, Black writers and poets continue to explore what it means to be Black and from Appalachia.

Swimming against cultural currents, they have long struggled to be heard. But a turning point took place 30 years ago, when Black Appalachian culture experienced a renaissance centered around a single word: "Affrilachia."

Douglas School in Elizabethton, Tennessee — Photo: Instagram

In the 1960s, the Appalachian Regional Commission officially defined the Appalachian region as an area encompassing counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia and the entirety of West Virginia. The designation brought national attention – and calls for economic equity – to an impoverished region that had largely been ignored.

When President Lyndon B. Johnson declared his "war on poverty" in 1964, it was with Appalachia in mind. However, as pernicious as the effects of poverty have been for white rural Appalachians, they've been worse for Black Appalachians, thanks to the long-term repercussions of slavery, Jim Crow laws, racial terrorism and a dearth of regional welfare programs.

Black Appalachians have long been, as poet and historian Edward J. Cabbell put it, "a neglected minority within a neglected minority."

Nonetheless, throughout the 20th century, Black Appalachian writers like Nikki Giovanni and Norman Jordan continued to write and wrestle with what it meant to be both Black and Appalachian.

Walker decided to give a name to his experience as a Black Appalachian: "Affrilachian."

In 1991, after a poetry reading that included Black poets from the Appalachian region, Kentucky poet Frank X. Walker decided to give a name to his experience as a Black Appalachian: "Affrilachian." It subsequently became the title of a poetry collection he released in 2000.

By coining the terms "Affrilachia" and "Affrilachian," Walker sought to upend assumptions about who is part of Appalachia. Writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie has spoken of the danger of the single story. When "one story becomes the only story," she said in a 2009 TED Talk, "it robs people of dignity."

Bull elk forage on the grasses of Combs Branch, Kentucky — Photo: David Stephenson

Rather than accepting the single story of Appalachia as white and poor, Walker wrote a new one, forging a path for Black Appalachian artists. It caught on.

In 2001, a number of Affrilachian poets – including Walker, Kelly Norman Ellis, Crystal Wilkinson, Ricardo Nazario y Colon, Gerald Coleman, Paul C. Taylor and Shanna Smith – were the subjects of the documentary "Coal Black Voices." In 2007, the journal Pluck! was founded out of University of Kentucky with the goal of promoting a diverse range of Affrilachian writers at the national level. In 2016, the anthology "Black Bone: 25 Years of Affrilachian Poetry" was published.

Roughly 9% of Appalachian residents are Black, and this renders many of the region's Black people "hypervisible," meaning they stick out in primarily white spaces.

Many Affrilachian poems explore this dynamic, along with the tension of participating in activities, such as hunting, that are stereotyped as being of interest only to white Americans. Food traditions, family and the Appalachian landscape are also central themes of the work.

Affrilachian poet Chanda Feldman's poem "Rabbit" touches on all of these elements.

Her poem shifts from the speaker hunting for rabbits with their father to the hunt as a larger metaphor for being Black in Appalachia – and thus seen as both predator and prey:

He told me

of my great uncle who, Depression era,

loaned white townspeople venison

and preserves. Later stood off

the same ones with a gun

when they wanted his property.

William R. "Pictureman" Mullins photographed Appalachians in Virginia and Kentucky from 1935-55 — Photo: Facebook

We reached out to Walker and asked him to reflect on the term, 30 years after he coined it.

Walker wrote back that it created a "solid foundation" that "encouraged a more diverse view of the region and its history" while increasing "opportunities for others to carve out their own space" – including other poets, musicians and visual artists of color throughout the region.

In her book "Sister Citizen," journalist and academic Melissa Harris-Perry writes, "Citizens want and need more than a fair distribution of resources: they also desire meaningful recognition of their humanity and uniqueness."

Affrilachian artistry and identity allows Appalachia to be fully seen as the diverse and culturally rich region that it is, bringing to the forefront those who have historically been pushed to the margins, out of mind and out of sight.

You've reached your limit of free articles.

To read the full story, start your free trial today.

Get unlimited access. Cancel anytime.

Exclusive coverage from the world's top sources, in English for the first time.

Insights from the widest range of perspectives, languages and countries.

Geopolitics

Utter Pessimism, What Israelis And Palestinians Share In Common

Right now, according to a joint survey of Israelis and Palestinians, hopes for a peaceful solution of coexistence simply don't exist. The recent spate of violence is confirmation of the deepest kind of pessimism on both sides for any solution other than domination of the other.

An old Palestinian protester waves Palestinian flag while he confronts the Israeli soldiers during the demonstration against Israeli settlements in the village of Beit Dajan near the West Bank city of Nablus.

A Palestinian protester confronts Israeli soldiers during the demonstration against Israeli settlements in the West Bank village of Beit Dajan on Jan. 6.

Pierre Haski

-Analysis-

PARIS — Just before the latest outbreak of violence between Israelis and Palestinians, a survey of public opinion among the two peoples provided a key to understanding the current situation unfolding before our eyes.

It was a joint study, entitled "Palestinian-Israeli Pulse", carried out by two research centers, one Israeli, the other Palestinian, which for years have been regularly asking the same questions to both sides.

The result is disastrous: not only is the support for the two-state solution — Israel and Palestine side by side — at its lowest point in two decades, but there is now a significant share of opinion on both sides that favors a "non-democratic" solution, i.e., a single state controlled by either the Israelis or Palestinians.

This captures the absolute sense of pessimism commonly felt regarding the chances of the two-state option ever being realized, which currently appears to be our grim reality today. But the results are also an expression of the growing acceptance on both sides that it is inconceivable for either state to live without dominating the other — and therefore impossible to live in peace.

Keep reading...Show less

You've reached your limit of free articles.

To read the full story, start your free trial today.

Get unlimited access. Cancel anytime.

Exclusive coverage from the world's top sources, in English for the first time.

Insights from the widest range of perspectives, languages and countries.

The latest