When the world gets closer.

We help you see farther.

Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter.

Enjoy unlimited access to quality journalism.

Limited time offer

Get your 30-day free trial!

Art History Gets Complicated For The #MeToo Era

Sexually-charged images of women (and occasionally men) being seized and abducted abound in ancient and present-day artwork alike.

Rape of Proserpina
Rape of Proserpina
Eric Biétry-Rivierre

PARIS — There's Deianira who was abducted by a centaur. And Proserpina, Persephone, Europa and Philyra, who were also snatched away by some god often advantageously metamorphosed into a bull or a stallion. Representations of these kinds of "love abductions' are abundant in painting and sculpture, from Antiquity to the present day.

Why? And what should be made of these many images? Jérôme Delaplanche, director of the art history department at the French Academy in Rome, tries to answer those very questions in a recently published essay entitled Ravissement (meaning "rapture" or "rape" in English).

Peter Paul Rubens' The Rape of Orithyia by Boreas — Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Such figures of women, conquered willingly or forcefully — as well as some images of children or young men also abducted, such as Ganymedes — abound. There are numerous representations on Greek vases, and in the paintings of Cabanel or Rubens. The famous painting The Rape of Orithyia by Boreas conveys the Flemish artist's criticism of man and his desire to possess, lacking all reason in the face of fury. But it's also the occasion for an erotic uncovering that satisfied the minds of the time, for whom a naked man is obviously a heroic figure, whereas a naked woman is indecent, shameless.

These figures also appear in Picasso"s works, for instance in his Minotaur Raping a Woman. The Spanish artist — who was notoriously cynical and cruel even with his own wives and children — had chosen the mythical half-man, half-bull beast as his raping avatar.

Sophie Chauveau, an author who recently published a two-volume biography of Picasso, says that he "hated women to the point that he beat them up and locked them up." Marie-Thérèse, one of his many mistresses, "used the word rape," Chauveau notes. "Françoise Gilot, a painter who also had an affair with him had her cheek pierced by a burning cigarette. That's not to mention the sadomasochist tragedy with Dora Maar."

"They are works of art created by men, for men"

There are also the sculptures of Girardon or of Bernini, for instance in his Rape of Proserpina, in which Pluto grabs the goddess' thigh, her refusal only reinforcing the malevolent god's desire. The Bible has its female victims as well: Rebecca, Susanna, the adulterous woman, even Mary. A more recent representation is the abduction in the King Kong movie.

In his book, Jérôme Delaplanche draws up a long but admittedly incomplete list of such love abductions in Western art, from Antiquity to the present day. In doing so, he uncovers three types of scenarios.

There is, first of all, the irrepressible desire that can be likened to rape (even if the act of penetration itself is seldom represented). There is also abduction portrayed as a historical necessity. Finally, the accepted abduction, a rapture that corresponds to an apotheosis, where the figure rises herself (see for instance Bernini's Ecstasy of Saint Teresa in Rome).

The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa by Bernini​— Photo: Napoleon Vier

All of these fabulous fictions involving beings who are either consenting or submissive to the strong constitute an entirely male system, the author notes. "They are works of art created by men, for men," he says, stressing that he doesn't think of himself as a feminist activist. In classical art, "the free man imposes the vigor of his desire .... No guilt hinders the sexuality of the dominant male."

Delaplanche then poses a question. "Is our kindly view of these works of art the pure product of our patriarchal and macho culture?" The answer depends on whether or not you believe a work of art is susceptible to moral judgment.

You've reached your limit of free articles.

To read the full story, start your free trial today.

Get unlimited access. Cancel anytime.

Exclusive coverage from the world's top sources, in English for the first time.

Insights from the widest range of perspectives, languages and countries.


Chinese Students' "Absurd" Protest Against COVID Lockdowns: Public Crawling

While street demonstrations have spread in China to protest the strict Zero-COVID regulations, some Chinese university students have taken up public acts of crawling to show what extended harsh lockdowns are doing to their mental state.

​Screenshot of a video showing Chinese students crawling on a soccer pitch

Screenshot of a video showing Chinese students crawling

Shuyue Chen

Since last Friday, the world has watched a wave of street protests have taken place across China as frustration against extended lockdowns reached a boiling point. But even before protesters took to the streets, Chinese university students had begun a public demonstration that challenges and shames the state's zero-COVID rules in a different way: public displays of crawling, as a kind of absurdist expression of their repressed anger under three years of strict pandemic control.

Xin’s heart was beating fast as her knees reached the ground. It was her first time joining the strange scene at the university sports field, so she put on her hat and face mask to cover her identity.

Kneeling down, with her forearms supporting her body from the ground, Xin started crawling with three other girls as a group, within a larger demonstration of other small groups. As they crawled on, she felt the sense of fear and embarrassment start to disappear. It was replaced by a liberating sense of joy, which had been absent in her life as a university student in lockdown for so long.

Yes, crawling in public has become a popular activity among Chinese university students recently. There have been posters and videos of "volunteer crawling" across universities in China. At first, it was for the sake of "fun." Xin, like many who participated, thought it was a "cult-like ritual" in the beginning, but she changed her mind. "You don't care about anything when crawling, not thinking about the reason why, what the consequences are. You just enjoy it."

The reality out there for Chinese university students has been grim. For Xin, her university started daily COVID-19 testing in November, and deliveries, including food, are banned. Apart from the school gate, all exits have been padlock sealed.

Keep reading...Show less

You've reached your limit of free articles.

To read the full story, start your free trial today.

Get unlimited access. Cancel anytime.

Exclusive coverage from the world's top sources, in English for the first time.

Insights from the widest range of perspectives, languages and countries.

The latest