Geopolitics

India's Anti-Muslim Violence Is Part Of An Ugly Pattern

By now, many across Delhi, and Sikhs across the world, are retriggered by memories the pogroms of 1984.

In Delhi after Feb. 26 clashes
In Delhi after Feb. 26 clashes
Mallika Kaur

NEW DELHI — While Donald Trump and Narendra Modi displayed further bonhomie in India this week, #DelhiBurning trended on Twitter, and mainstream media rushed to control the narrative around plumes of smoke rising from New Delhi neighborhoods. At least 21 people have died and nearly 200 injured; the videos and photos that have made it out are bone-chilling.

"Friends are in East Delhi and I am worried. Can I text back later?" writes a former student.

Her family lived through the anti-Sikh pogroms in Delhi past. Inconvenient memories of the survivors of such violence know how it can quickly slide into a full-fledged pogrom, know how the victims are blamed, know that the targeting is a mortal signal to minorities much beyond the scope of the current violence. After all, this violence is being performed in the capital city, just kilometers away from where Trump dined! These inconvenient memories reject the politically expedient explanations.

Since December, much before Trump's mega visit, citizens in India have been protesting new laws which are widely understood as anti-Muslim. These laws were barely cloaked with rationales of national security and government benevolence. Unlike the Muslim bans in the US, they have not met rigorous challenges in India's courts.​

The government characterized the whole crisis as "orchestrated."

The Muslim minority has felt deathly vulnerable in the face of legalized discrimination and social emboldening of the anti-Muslim right-wing. Some citizen-activists from other communities, who have themselves been scapegoated and disenfranchised, have provided visible support to the people protesting these laws.

Now, during Trump's visit, Muslims are bearing the bloody brunt in India's capital. Social media recoils at videos of police engaging in violence against injured Muslims lying collapsed on the ground, of forcing bloodied Muslim men to sing the national anthem and chant Hindu slogans, of encouraging armed mobs shouting vicious anti-Muslim slogans, of assailants running right by the police and then proceeding to attack Muslims. Some media houses have minimized the violence as "between two groups' and the government characterized the whole crisis as "orchestrated."

A BJP spokeswoman tweeted the violence and killing (of a police constable) was a "ploy to embarrass India," and ironically attributes it to the same "anti-India forces' that accompanied President Bill Clinton's visit to India in 2000. On the eve of Clinton's visit, 35 Sikh civilians were summarily executed in Chattisinghpora village in Kashmir, by masked assailants, who the government quickly called Pakistani and Muslim terrorists. The role of the Indian forces in the massacre and the later cover-up — including by executing local Kashmiri Muslims men, dubbed "Pakistanis' — was alleged by locals from the onset; then reported internationally; and eventually confirmed in part by the Supreme Court.

In Delhi on Feb. 26 — Photo: Amarjeet Kumar Singh/SOPA/ZUMA

The government spokesperson's seemingly confessional comparison between the death during Clinton's visit and the death during Trump's current visit in fact highlights the very crux of the current situation: certain historical facts are declared fictions, entire communities are rendered suspect, and then their victimization is seen as vindication.

By now, many across Delhi, and Sikhs across the world, are retriggered by memories the pogroms of 1984, when Delhi was shut down for days while armed, organized, government-backed mobs unleashed sadistic, sexualized, ravaging violence against Sikhs (many who were hiding in their own homes, as noted on the lists provided to the "mobs'). Thousands were murdered in just days.

The survivors seethed at the mockery and shaming to which they were subjected in the aftermath. Being taunted walking down a street, while struggling to find employment, apartment rentals, seats on public transport or basic politeness all became commonplace for Sikhs: rural and urban, turbaned and not, traditional and Anglicized.

It is an inconvenient memory.

Delhi Sikhs especially remember the shock of posters with barely veiled threats and castigations of the entire Sikh community as treacherous: "Will the country's border finally be moved to your doorsteps?" and "Should you be afraid of your cab driver?"

This memory is inconvenient to any narrative peddled now about "anti-national", "bad" Muslims "clashing" with "good" Hindu citizens. It is also inconvenient to liberal narratives which, while intent on rejecting the current politics of hate, ignore the pre-Modi, the pre-2002, the pre-1990 history of India. Even when those ignored histories contribute to the popularity of the current strongmen; directly relate to the Draconian clampdown in the Kashmir Valley; and fuel India's oft-rung alarm bells against nuclear neighbor Pakistan.

For too long, there has been an electorally expedient blueprint that actively fuels divisions and mistrust, creates an enemy community, and stokes communal hostility to prevent everyday citizens from exhibiting everyday humanity.

Rather than condemning the armed attackers, politicians of various hues are rushing to issue concerned statements that India's image is being sullied by the protestors, who are the targets of the violence. Meanwhile, once my former student confirms the well-being of her Muslim friends in East Delhi, I'm sure she will text me back. Hope is hounded, but kept alive by these citizens.

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Geopolitics

"The Truest Hypocrisy" - The Russia-NATO Clash Seen From Moscow

Russia has decided to cut off relations with the Western military alliance. But Moscow says it was NATO who really wanted the break based on its own internal rationale.

NATO chief Stoltenberg and Russian Foregin Minister Lavrov

Russian Foreign Ministry/TASS via ZUMA
Pavel Tarasenko and Sergei Strokan

MOSCOW — The Russian Foreign Ministry's announcement that the country's permanent representation to NATO would be shut down for an indefinite period is a major development. But from Moscow's viewpoint, there was little alternative.

These measures were taken in response to the decision of NATO on Oct. 6 to cut the number of personnel allowed in the Russian mission to the Western alliance by half. NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said the removal of accreditations was from eight employees of the Russian mission to NATO who were identified as undeclared employees of Russian intelligence." We have seen an increase in Russian malicious activity for some time now," Stoltenberg said.


The Russian Foreign Ministry called NATO's expulsion of Russian personnel a "ridiculous stunt," and Stoltenberg's words "the truest hypocrisy."

In announcing the complete shutdown in diplomacy between Moscow and NATO, the Russian Foreign Ministry added: "The 'Russian threat' is being hyped in strengthen the alliance's internal unity and create the appearance of its 'relevance' in modern geopolitical conditions."

The number of Russian diplomatic missions in Brussels has been reduced twice unilaterally by NATO in 2015 and 2018 - after the alliance's decision of April 1, 2014 to suspend all practical civilian and military cooperation between Russia and NATO in the wake of Russia's annexation of Crimea. Diplomats' access to the alliance headquarters and communications with its international secretariat was restricted, military contacts have frozen.

Yet the new closure of all diplomatic contacts is a perilous new low. Kommersant sources said that the changes will affect the military liaison mission of the North Atlantic alliance in Moscow, aimed at promoting the expansion of the dialogue between Russia and NATO. However, in recent years there has been no de facto cooperation. And now, as Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov has announced, the activities of the military liaison mission will be suspended. The accreditation of its personnel will be canceled on November 1.

NATO told RIA Novosti news service on Monday that it regretted Moscow's move. Meanwhile, among Western countries, Germany was the first to respond. "It would complicate the already difficult situation in which we are now and prolong the "ice age," German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas told reporters.

"Lavrov said on Monday, commenting on the present and future of relations between Moscow and the North Atlantic Alliance, "If this is the case, then we see no great need to continue pretending that any changes will be possible in the foreseeable future because NATO has already announced that such changes are impossible.

The suspension of activities of the Russian Permanent Mission to NATO, as well as the military liaison and information mission in Russia, means that Moscow and Brussels have decided to "draw a final line under the partnership relations of previous decades," explained Andrei Kortunov, director-general of the Russian Council on Foreign Affairs, "These relations began to form in the 1990s, opening channels for cooperation between the sides … but they have continued to steadily deteriorate over recent years."

Kortunov believes the current rupture was promoted by Brussels. "A new strategy for NATO is being prepared, which will be adopted at the next summit of the alliance, and the previous partnership with Russia does not fit into its concept anymore."

The existence and expansion of NATO after the end of the Cold War was the main reason for the destruction of the whole complex of relations between Russia and the West. Today, Russia is paying particular attention to marking red lines related to the further steps of Ukraine's integration into NATO. Vladimir Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov previously stated this, warning that in response to the alliance's activity in the Ukrainian direction, Moscow would take "active steps" to ensure its security.

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