August 31, 2020
CHANDIGARH — In incessant rounds of official wrangling over attaining long-term leverage to counter China following the border face-off in eastern Ladakh, India has one compelling potential factor that remains either obscured or, at best, mentioned sotto voce: the Dalai Lama.
Astonishingly, there has been no official reference over the past few months to the Tibetan spiritual leader – the 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso – whose presence in India has been anathema to Beijing ever since he exiled himself here 61 years ago in 1959. Even "inspired" leaks to an ever obliging domestic media about the government making amends for cold shouldering the 85-year old Nobel laureate in recent years to please Beijing are absent.
Remarkably, most China specialists, retired diplomats, security analysts and military in their public ruminations over the enduring People's Liberation Army (PLA) threat along the line of actual control (LAC), have largely been muted over the Dalai Lama, Tibet, and even Buddhism. For, despite its economic machismo and technical military wizardry, China remains hypersensitive about all three of these issues, viewing them as security, political and diplomatic dangers, despite the long passage of time since the Peoples Republic of China took charge of Tibet in 1950.
Hence, to make no reference whatsoever to either or all three issues, at a juncture when Delhi has little or no durable military, diplomatic or economic heft to deal with Beijing over the LAC standoff, makes it even more paradoxical.
China has ruthlessly "Sinicized," or ethnically, culturally, societally and linguistically dominated Tibet.
Ironically, ever since the LAC crisis erupted in early May, all that Prime Minister Narendra's Modi's government has done is to ban 100 or so Chinese apps, including Tik Tok, and to suspend a handful of railway, telecommunication and road construction tenders.
"For Prime Minister Modi's government to not even mention the Dalai Lama or Tibet at this juncture, when all previous bilateral peace and tranquility border agreements concerning the LAC have irreparably broken down, is puzzling," said a senior retired security official, requesting anonymity. The Dalai Lama is a globally revered Buddhist leader, and if India wants ultimately to forge an international coalition against Beijing's hegemony, the Tibet issue could well prick China's vulnerability from within.
For though China has ruthlessly "Sinicized," or ethnically, culturally, societally and linguistically dominated Tibet for over 70 years and settled millions of Han Chinese in the Himalayan region, it has still been unsuccessful in eradicating veneration for the Dalai Lama from three generations of indigenous Tibetans. Even seven decades after taking control of Tibet, Beijing still continues to deploy commissars across the "autonomous region" to discredit and vilify the Dalai Lama, openly referring to him as a "monk in wolf's clothing" and other, more pejorative appellations.
Beijing's continuing paranoia over the Dalai Lama surfaced palpably yet again in mid-August, after a 42-year old Chinese national was arrested in Delhi on charges of bribing Tibetans from their Majnu Ka Tila settlement in north Delhi, to gather information on the Dalai Lama and his close associates. Security sources told The Wire that China continues to "back" a pool of informants in Delhi, Dharamsala – where the Dalai Lama's headquarters are located – and Karnataka, amongst other places where Tibetan communes are located, to provide its intermediaries information on their venerable leader.
Student agitator's burn an effigy of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi — Photo: Skanda Gautam/ZUMA
China also continues to agitate apoplectically when Western leaders and businessmen, Hollywood celebrities and other eminent foreign personages visit the Dalai Lama at Dharamsala or elsewhere, or when he travels abroad and meets heads of governments and state. But despite its complex and multifaceted stratagems, including economic measures, to delegitimize the Dalai Lama via proxies and to discredit his government in exile in India, Beijing appears largely to have failed in its hostile endeavors. Still, it continues trying in this interminable David and Goliath contest.
The BJP government's conscious efforts at distancing itself from the Dalai Lama began some weeks ahead of Modi's first informal summit with Chinese President Xi Jinping at Wuhan in April 2018 and continued up to and beyond the return summit at Mamallapuram that Modi hosted last October, seven months before the PLA calculatedly intruded across the LAC, seizing large tracts of Indian territory and refusing to disengage and withdraw.
Ironically, Modi began his first term as prime minister in May 2014 by inviting Lobsang Sangay – the head of Tibet's so-called government-in-exile – to his swearing in ceremony. In July 2017, Sangay was allowed to stage a photo-op with the Tibetan flag at Pangong Tso in Ladakh. Also in 2017, much to China's ire, the Dalai Lama visited Arunachal Pradesh which China claims as its own as part of "southern Tibet."
But this tenuous, outwardly affable relationship with the Tibetan spiritual leader would shortly end. In March 2018, seven weeks before Modi met Xi in Wuhan, the Tibetan community was summarily denied permission to hold a major celebration at a prominent Delhi stadium to commemorate their leaders 60th year of exile in India. Several senior Indian officials and dignitaries had been invited to the event, but at the behest of the Ministry of External Affairs, the then cabinet secretary P.K. Sinha curtly directed them all not to participate.
The event was hurriedly shifted to Dharamsala, and as explanation Ngodup Dhongchung, the Dalai Lama's representative in Delhi, tactfully declared that though some Tibetans may have been disappointed, they remained India's guests. Consequently, he called on his Tibetan compatriots to understand India's compulsions in withdrawing official permission to hold their celebratory function at Thyagaraja Stadium in Delhi, an irony that was not lost on anyone.
Younger Tibetans among the 95,000-odd exiles living in India in some 40 formal settlements and dozens of informal communities, conveyed their collective displeasure at the "personal humiliation" meted out by India to the Dalai Lama, by stopping the stadium event. Many claimed that it had been called off at China's behest as Delhi was "cozying" up to Beijing by isolating the Tibetan leader in exchange for financial and strategic inducements that mysteriously never materialized.
Exiled Tibetans celebrate the 30th anniversary of the Dalai Lama's Nobel Peace Prize — Photo: Sumit Saraswat/Pacific Press/ZUMA
In recent weeks, however, a handful of retired security officials have publicly voiced support for the Dalai Lama, but as some of them told The Wire, the Central government was "equivocal and unformulated" in its response to their counsel.
Former Research and Analysis (RAW) China specialist Jayadeva Ranade, who currently heads the Centre for China Analysis in New Delhi, for instance, declared that the Dalai Lama needed to appear publicly on the same platform as Indian ministers and officials to indicate support for the Tibetan leader. He stated that the Dalai Lama, who epitomized Buddhism the world over and remains well disposed towards India, could well have a positive multiplier effect in Delhi's dealings with China.
Former national security adviser M.K. Nayaranan went even a step further. Writing in The Hindu, he declared that with a view to appeasing China in recent years, India had "distanced itself from the Dalai Lama which has, without doubt been a mistake" that needs rectification. Restoring the Dalai Lama to the same level of eminence (like earlier) in India's official thinking "should be an important plank in India's anti-China policy," the former NSA added.
Other security officials and diplomats also privately conceded to The Wire that it was now incumbent upon the government to "course correct" and make amends' for abruptly marginalizing the Dalai Lama over two years ago to placate Beijing. They added that reconciliation was all the more critical with regard to the Dalai Lama's reincarnated successor, whose selection has now been deemed the latter's sole responsibility and who, in all probability will eventually operate from India.
Beijing cares little that the person it anoints will lack legitimacy with millions of Buddhists globally.
Meeting in Dharamsala last November, senior religious leaders representing four schools of Tibetan Buddhism had unanimously authorised the Dalai Lama to choose his successor. The three point resolution at the conclave declared that "the authority of decision concerning the way and manner in which the next reincarnation of the 14th Dalai Lama (ie the 15th Dalai Lama) should appear, solely rests with this Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama himself."
If the Chinese government, for political reasons chooses its own candidate for the Dalai Lama, the Tibetan people will not recognize and respect that nominee, declared the resolution with clinching finality. Expectedly, the authorities in Beijing have categorically rejected this religious declaration and will proceed, as it has frequently stated, to undermine the 14th Dalai Lama's succession by nominating someone aligned to the Communist Party of China. Beijing cares little that the person it anoints will lack legitimacy with millions of Buddhists globally, including those inside Tibet, further rupturing a battered society already rent asunder by cultural subjugation.
Under the circumstances it's a dead certainty that the 15th Dalai Lama will certainly not be from China; all else being equal, it's also inevitable that he or she will be based in Dharamsala which, over six decades, has become synonymous with the Tibetan community in all respects. Hence, say analysts, there is nothing to be gained by the Modi government treating the aging Dalai Lama disparagingly, or by boxing him into a corner – especially in a nebulous and protracted situation like the present standoff in Ladakh.
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It is today a proven fraud, nailed by the French stock market watchdog: Air Next resorted to a full range of dubious practices to raise money for a blockchain-powered e-commerce app. But the simplest of errors exposed the scam and limited the damage to investors. A cautionary tale for the crypto economy.
October 27, 2021
PARIS — Air Next promised to use blockchain technology to revolutionize passenger transport. Should we have read something into its name? In fact, the company was talking a lot of hot air from the start. Air Next turned out to be a scam, with a fake website, false identities, fake criminal records, counterfeited bank certificates, aggressive marketing … real crooks. Thirty-five employees recruited over the summer ranked among its victims, not to mention the few investors who put money in the business.
Maud (not her real name) had always dreamed of working in a start-up. In July, she spotted an ad on Linkedin and was interviewed by videoconference — hardly unusual in the era of COVID and teleworking. She was hired very quickly and signed a permanent work contract. She resigned from her old job, happy to get started on a new adventure.
Others like Maud fell for the bait. At least ten senior managers, coming from major airlines, airports, large French and American corporations, a former police officer … all firmly believed in this project. Some quit their jobs to join; some French expats even made their way back to France.
Share capital of one billion
The story began last February, when Air Next registered with the Paris Commercial Court. The new company stated it was developing an application that would allow the purchase of airline tickets by using cryptocurrency, at unbeatable prices and with an automatic guarantee in case of cancellation or delay, via a "smart contract" system (a computer protocol that facilitates, verifies and oversees the handling of a contract).
The firm declared a share capital of one billion euros, with offices under construction at 50, Avenue des Champs Elysées, and a president, Philippe Vincent ... which was probably a usurped identity.
Last summer, Air Next started recruiting. The company also wanted to raise money to have the assets on hand to allow passenger compensation. It organized a fundraiser using an ICO, or "Initial Coin Offering", via the issuance of digital tokens, transacted in cryptocurrencies through the blockchain.
While nothing obliged him to do so, the company owner went as far as setting up a file with the AMF, France's stock market regulator which oversees this type of transaction. Seeking the market regulator stamp is optional, but when issued, it gives guarantees to those buying tokens.
The infamous typo that brought the Air Next scam down
Raising Initial Coin Offering
Then, on Sept. 30, the AMF issued an alert, by way of a press release, on the risks of fraud associated with the ICO, as it suspected some documents to be forgeries. A few hours before that, Air Next had just brought forward by several days the date of its tokens pre-sale.
For employees of the new company, it was a brutal wake-up call. They quickly understood that they had been duped, that they'd bet on the proverbial house of cards. On the investor side, the CEO didn't get beyond an initial fundraising of 150,000 euros. He was hoping to raise millions, but despite his failure, he didn't lose confidence. Challenged by one of his employees on Telegram, he admitted that "many documents provided were false", that "an error cost the life of this project."
What was the "error" he was referring to? A typo in the name of the would-be bank backing the startup. A very small one, at the bottom of the page of the false bank certificate, where the name "Edmond de Rothschild" is misspelled "Edemond".
Before the AMF's public alert, websites specializing in crypto-assets had already noted certain inconsistencies. The company had declared a share capital of 1 billion euros, which is an enormous amount. Air Next's CEO also boasted about having discovered bitcoin at a time when only a few geeks knew about cryptocurrency.
Employees and investors filed a complaint. Failing to find the general manager, Julien Leclerc — which might also be a fake name — they started looking for other culprits. They believe that if the Paris Commercial Court hadn't registered the company, no one would have been defrauded.
Beyond the handful of victims, this case is a plea for the implementation of more secure procedures, in an increasingly digital world, particularly following the pandemic. The much touted ICO market is itself a victim, and may find it hard to recover.
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