Liberty v. Nation, Anatomy Of Europe’s Democratic Recession

Orban in Budapest
Orban in Budapest
Alexenia Dimitrova


PARIS — "The era of multiculturalism is over ..."

This was the proud declaration of Viktor Orban, the prime minister of Hungary, back in the summer of 2015. One year later, Theresa May, the new British prime minister, took it one step further: "If you believe you are a citizen of the world, you're a citizen of nowhere."

After the victory of Brexit or, even better, Donald Trump's election in the United States, can we now point to Orban's Hungary as the opening act of a "cultural counter-revolution" that seems to be taking over the democratic world? Can we still, in Europe, speak of an East-West values divide that is comparable to the North-South economic divide? Did Hungary and Jaroslaw Kaczynski's Poland, aside from their significant differences, simply initiate what was an inevitable populist cycle?

What yesterday seemed marginal and almost of secondary importance can now be perceived as the ultimate warning, or at the very least a premonition of what tomorrow has in store. It is important to analyze the causes of populism in central Europe to understand what could next happen in France, for example, if Marine Le Pen's National Front comes to power in 2017.

Exploding contradictions

If you look at the annals of History, it is ironic to note that during the entire Cold War, central and eastern Europe — Milan Kundera's "kidnapped Europe" — dreamed of being included in a Europe they upheld as a symbol for freedom and prosperity.

Now, 27 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, this cycle of liberalism may be ending before our eyes. Europe is no longer the stuff of dreams, as the British referendum showed in a spectacular way. Liberal democracy is in crisis — on both sides of the Atlantic. The market economy is the victim of the brutal rise of inequalities.

The Hungarians and Poles wanted Europe, democracy and capitalism. And they got them. But this "trinity" is no longer synonymous with success. Instead, it has become burdened with contradictions that literally exploded when the influx of refugees, real or imagined, accelerated isolationist movements in these countries. Moved by the politics of anger, those disappointed with Europe, democracy and capitalism identified with central Europe's populist leaders.

How else can one explain this "democratic recession," as the late Hungarian writer István Bibó described it? Democracy is in danger, he said, "when the cause of the Nation seems threatened by the cause of Liberty." Years ago, the Hungarian nation was under threat from the Ottomans. Now, the menace is the EU's "open-border policy." In any case, that's how Hungary's prime minister puts it.

Can we go as far as saying, as some think, that central Europe is giving Jean-Jacques Rousseau his revenge over fellow French philosopher Montesquieu? Viktor Orban highlights the "general will of the people" in opposition to the "rule of law," the principle dear to Montesquieu, author of The Spirit of the Laws. Armed with a Rousseauist vision of democracy, Orban attacks the media's independence and the neutrality of public administration.

Now what?

The migrant crisis encourages ethnic nationalism, which becomes the main source for democratic legitimacy. After all, doesn't Hungary defend a certain idea of the European identity, one that is threatened by open borders?

An anti-immigrant protest in Cologne, Germany Photo: Kelly Kline

Another ironic aspect of history resides in the fact that the current Hungarian and Polish vision isn't far off from the concept of "Kulturnation" that is at the heart of German identity. And yet it's Germany that now sets the example of openness, while its neighbors from central and eastern Europe are the vanguard of ethnic nationalism.

Looking beyond values, there is an intrinsic contradiction between the willingness of Hungary and Poland to distance themselves from the EU and their economic dependence from Brussels. There is, more importantly, a contradiction in terms of foreign and security policy. It is one thing to confront Europe — Germany and France in particular — and to denounce the former's policy of welcoming refugees and the arms deals signed with the latter. But it is another thing to define a coherent policy against Vladimir Putin's Russia. Can you really reject the "values' of the EU when you most need the EU? For all their talk, the leaders in Budapest or Warsaw alone won't protect their countries from Moscow's ever greater ambitions.

There was a time when Poland was delighted to be seen as a member of a potential "club of six" inside the EU, alongside Germany, France, Britain, Spain and Italy. At the time, the Weimar triangle (Germany, France, Poland) was perceived by the Poles themselves as the symbol of their new status as one of Europe's great nations. But by choosing the path of identify over immigration, Poland provoked its own isolation and marginalization — against the will of almost half of its population.

Are we witnessing just a sad "provincial" parenthesis in central Europe? Or will western Europe — beginning with France — join it on the way to democratic recession? Sometimes we see something as "lagging behind" when, in reality, it's "ahead of its time."

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7 Ways The Pandemic May Change The Airline Industry For Good

Will flying be greener? More comfortable? Less frequent? As the world eyes a post-COVID reality, we look at ways the airline industry has been changing through a pandemic that has devastated air travel.

Ready for (a different kind of) takeoff?

Carl-Johan Karlsson

It's hard to overstate the damage the pandemic has had on the airline industry, with global revenues dropping by 40% in 2020 and dozens of airlines around the world filing for bankruptcy. One moment last year when the gravity became particularly apparent was when Asian carriers (in countries with low COVID-19 rates) began offering "flights to nowhere" — starting and ending at the same airport as a way to earn some cash from would-be travelers who missed the in-flight experience.

More than a year later today, experts believe that air traffic won't return to normal levels until 2024.

But beyond the financial woes, the unprecedented slowdown in air travel may bring some silver linings as key aspects of the industry are bound to change once back in full spin, with some longer-term effects on aviation already emerging. Here are some major transformations to expect in the coming years:

Cleaner aviation fuel

The U.S. administration of President Joe Biden and the airline industry recently agreed to the ambitious goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050. Already in a decade, the U.S. aims to produce three billion gallons of sustainable fuel — about one-tenth of current total use — from waste, plants and other organic matter.

While greening the world's road transport has long been at the top of the climate agenda, aviation is not even included under the Paris Agreement. But with air travel responsible for roughly 12% of all CO2 emissions from transport, and stricter international regulation on the horizon, the industry is increasingly seeking sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based fuel.

Fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund.

In Germany, state broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports that the world's first factory producing CO2-neutral kerosene recently started operations in the town of Wertle, in Lower Saxony. The plant, for which Lufthansa is set to become the pilot customer, will produce CO2-neutral kerosene through a circular production cycle incorporating sustainable and green energy sources and raw materials. Energy is supplied through wind turbines from the surrounding area, while the fuel's main ingredients are water and waste-generated CO2 coming from a nearby biogas plant.

Farther north, Norwegian Air Shuttle has recently submitted a recommendation to the government that fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund aimed at developing cleaner aviation fuel, according to Norwegian news site E24. The airline also suggested that the government significantly reduce the tax burden on the industry over a longer period to allow airlines to recover from the pandemic.

Black-and-white photo of an ariplane shot from below flying across the sky and leaving condensation trails

High-flying ambitions for the sector

Joel & Jasmin Førestbird

Hydrogen and electrification

Some airline manufacturers are betting on hydrogen, with research suggesting that the abundant resource has the potential to match the flight distances and payload of a current fossil-fuel aircraft. If derived from renewable resources like sun and wind power, hydrogen — with an energy-density almost three times that of gasoline or diesel — could work as a fully sustainable aviation fuel that emits only water.

One example comes out of California, where fuel-cell specialist HyPoint has entered a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Piasecki Aircraft Corporation to manufacture 650-kilowatt hydrogen fuel cell systems for aircrafts. According to HyPoint, the system — scheduled for commercial availability product by 2025 — will have four times the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries and double the specific power of existing hydrogen fuel-cell systems.

Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce is looking to smash the speed record of electrical flights with a newly designed 23-foot-long model. Christened the Spirit of Innovation, the small plane took off for the first time earlier this month and successfully managed a 15-minute long test flight. However, the company has announced plans to fly the machine faster than 300 mph (480 km/h) before the year is out, and also to sell similar propulsion systems to companies developing electrical air taxis or small commuter planes.

New aircraft designs

Airlines are also upgrading aircraft design to become more eco-friendly. Air France just received its first upgrade of a single-aisle, medium-haul aircraft in 33 years. Fleet director Nicolas Bertrand told French daily Les Echos that the new A220 — that will replace the old A320 model — will reduce operating costs by 10%, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% and noise footprint by 34%.

International first class will be very nearly a thing of the past.

The pandemic has also ushered in a new era of consumer demand where privacy and personal space is put above luxury. The retirement of older aircraft caused by COVID-19 means that international first class — already in steady decline over the last decades — will be very nearly a thing of the past. Instead, airplane manufacturers around the world (including Delta, China Eastern, JetBlue, British Airways and Shanghai Airlines) are betting on a new generation of super-business minisuites where passengers have a privacy door. The idea, which was introduced by Qatar Airways in 2017, is to offer more personal space than in regular business class but without the lavishness of first class.

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

Hygiene rankings  

Rome's Fiumicino Airport has become the first in the world to earn "the COVID-19 5-Star Airport Rating" from Skytrax, an international airline and airport review and ranking site, Italian daily La Repubblica reports. Skytrax, which publishes a yearly annual ranking of the world's best airports and issues the World Airport Awards, this year created a second list to specifically call out airports with the best health and hygiene standards.

Smoother check-in

​The pandemic has also accelerated the shift towards contactless traveling, with more airports harnessing the power of biometrics — such as facial recognition or fever screening — to reduce touchpoints and human contact. Similar technology can also be used to more efficiently scan physical objects, such as explosive detection. Ultimately, passengers will be able to "check-in" and go through a security screening anywhere at the airports, removing queues and bottlenecks.

Data privacy issues

​However, as pointed out in Canadian publication The Lawyer's Daily, increased use of AI and biometrics also means increased privacy concerns. For example, health and hygiene measures like digital vaccine passports also mean that airports can collect data on who has been vaccinated and the type of vaccine used.

Photo of planes at Auckland airport, New Zealand

Auckland Airport, New Zealand

Douglas Bagg

The billion-dollar question: Will we fly less?

At the end of the day, even with all these (mostly positive) changes that we've seen take shape over the past 18 months, the industry faces major uncertainty about whether air travel will ever return to the pre-COVID levels. Not only are people wary about being in crowded and closed airplanes, but the worth of long-distance business travel in particular is being questioned as many have seen that meetings can function remotely, via Zoom and other online apps.

Trying to forecast the future, experts point to the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks as at least a partial blueprint for what a recovery might look like in the years ahead. Twenty years ago, as passenger enthusiasm for flying waned amid security fears following the attacks, airlines were forced to cancel flights and put planes into storage.

40% of Swedes intend to travel less

According to McKinsey, leisure trips and visits to family and friends rebounded faster than business flights, which took four years to return to pre-crisis levels in the UK. This time too, business travel is expected to lag, with the consulting firm estimating only 80% recovery of pre-pandemic levels by 2024.

But the COVID-19 crisis also came at a time when passengers were already rethinking their travel habits due to climate concerns, while worldwide lockdowns have ushered in a new era of remote working. In Sweden, a survey by the country's largest research company shows that 40% of the population intend to travel less even after the pandemic ends. Similarly in the UK, nearly 60% of adults said during the spring they intended to fly less after being vaccinated against COVID-19 — with climate change cited as a top reason for people wanting to reduce their number of flights, according to research by the University of Bristol.

At the same time, major companies are increasingly forced to face the music of the environmental movement, with several corporations rolling out climate targets over the last few years. Today, five of the 10 biggest buyers of corporate air travel in the US are technology companies: Amazon, IBM, Google, Apple and Microsoft, according to Taipei Times, all of which have set individual targets for environmental stewardship. As such, the era of flying across the Atlantic for a two-hour executive meeting is likely in its dying days.

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