When the world gets closer.

We help you see farther.

Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter.

View from inside a tuk-tuk in Jalalabad, Afghanistan
View from inside a tuk-tuk in Jalalabad, Afghanistan
Mudassar Shah

JALALABAD — It's early morning in Jalalabad, eastern Afghanistan. Haroon Sarwari, 17, and Manzoor Ali, 18, are wearing their backpacks and walking quickly to get a taxi to reach Kabul on time.

These close friends have laid out plans to travel to Europe illegally with the help of a smuggling agent. Haroon's cousins managed to get to Germany three months before, so his father, Sarwar Khan, supports the plan.

"My father sold a few of his cows and borrowed some money from his friends to send me to Europe," the teenager explains. "He has already agreed with the agent on how much to pay."

Sarwar Khan admits, nevertheless, that it's been a difficult decision. "Children are part of the body and soul, but I needed to do this. The security situation in the country is not good and there are no jobs," he says. "The agent told me that Haroon would reach Europe in about three months because the roads are very dangerous."

Haroon and Manzoor are energetic, happy and anxious during the three-hour-long drive from Jalalabad to Kabul. They spend the entire time talking about what their life in Germany will be like. They say they will take any job, from washing dishes to cleaning toilets. At no point, though, do they talk about the hardships they might endure, or how risky the journey there will be.

Later that afternoon, in the capital, hundreds of Afghans, mostly young people, are queuing for their electronic passports, testament to just how difficult conditions are in the war-torn, economically depressed nation.

[rebelmouse-image 27090139 alt="""" original_size="1024x426" expand=1]

On the Jalalabad to Kabul highway — Photo: Peretz Partensky

A survey in December 2015, conducted jointly by the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNRA) and the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, or AREU, found that poverty, insecurity and unemployment are the main reasons driving Afghan youth to immigrate illegally. The Afghan government recently announced that 250,000 Afghans have been registered as refugees in developed countries.

"One of the common points that we found in our research is that people who cross borders illegally face extremely difficult situations from both human trafficking agents and the police," says Dr. Sayed Mahdi Mosawi, a senior researcher with the AREU. "Police severely beat and punish illegal immigrants, even kill them in some cases."

By some estimates there are only about 3 million jobs in Afghanistan for an eligible workforce of approximately 16 million. The AREU researcher says more jobs would encourage young Afghans to stay at home.

In Kabul, finding an agent to arrange illegal passage is relatively easy. But the services aren't cheap. Agents charge between $5,000 and $12,000, depending on the routes and destination countries. Ramin Jan, an agent I met on a roadside in Jalalabad city, says England is the most expensive destination, with a going smuggler's rate of $12,000.

[rebelmouse-image 27090140 alt="""" original_size="1024x765" expand=1]

Walking in Jalalabad — Photo: Peretz Partensky

"We have a network of agents," Ramin, who is not yet 30, explains. "We take people from western Afghanistan to Iran and then to Turkey. Our main duty is to hand our people over to an agent in Turkey. That person is then responsible for the rest of the trip into the different European countries."

Sharifa Omeri lost her son eight months ago when he tried to reach Europe by way of Iran and Turkey. He was shot dead while running from Iranian border police. Sharifa says that since then, time seems to have stopped. She also says that the journey wasn't worth the risk. "I wish I never allowed him to leave the country, that I had stopped him by force so I would not have lost him," she says.

The Afghan government is trying to send the same message, and promises to crack down on smugglers. But unless it can provide more jobs, the government's warnings are likely to fall on deaf ears.

You've reached your monthly limit of free articles.
To read the full article, please subscribe.
Get unlimited access. Support Worldcrunch's unique mission:
  • Exclusive coverage from the world's top sources, in English for the first time.
  • Stories from the best international journalists.
  • Insights from the widest range of perspectives, languages and countries
Already a subscriber? Log in

When the world gets closer, we help you see farther

Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter!
Geopolitics

Minsk Never More: Lessons For The West About Negotiating With Putin

The longer the war in Ukraine continues, the louder calls will grow for a ceasefire . Stockholm-based analysts explain how the West can reach a viable deal on this: primarily by avoiding strategic mistakes from last time following the annexation of Crimea.

"War is not over" protests in London

Hugo von Essen, Andreas Umland

-Analysis-

Each new day the Russian assault on Ukraine continues, the wider and deeper is the global impact. And so with each day, there is more and more talk of a ceasefire. But just how and under what conditions such an agreement might be reached are wide open questions.

What is already clear, however, is that a ceasefire between Russia and Ukraine must not repeat mistakes made since the open conflict between the two countries began more than eight years ago.

Stay up-to-date with the latest on the Russia-Ukraine war, with our exclusive international coverage.

Sign up to our free daily newsletter.

Contrary to widespread opinion, the so-called Minsk ceasefire agreements of 2014-2015 were not meant as a definitive solution. And as we now know, they would not offer a path to peace. Instead, the accord negotiated in the Belarusian capital would indeed become part of the problem, as it fueled the aggressive Russian strategies that led to the escalation in 2022.

In early September 2014, the Ukrainian army suffered a crushing defeat at Ilovaisk against unmarked regular Russian ground forces. Fearing further losses, Kyiv agreed to negotiations with Moscow.

The Minsk Protocol (“Minsk I”) – followed shortly thereafter by a clarifying memorandum – baldly served Russian interests. For example, it envisaged a “decentralization” – i.e. Balkanization – of Ukraine. An uneasy truce came about; but the conflict was in no way resolved.

Keep reading...Show less

When the world gets closer, we help you see farther

Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter!
You've reached your monthly limit of free articles.
To read the full article, please subscribe.
Get unlimited access. Support Worldcrunch's unique mission:
  • Exclusive coverage from the world's top sources, in English for the first time.
  • Stories from the best international journalists.
  • Insights from the widest range of perspectives, languages and countries
Already a subscriber? Log in
Writing contest - My pandemic story
THE LATEST
FOCUS
TRENDING TOPICS

Central to the tragic absurdity of this war is the question of language. Vladimir Putin has repeated that protecting ethnic Russians and the Russian-speaking populations of Ukraine was a driving motivation for his invasion.

Yet one month on, a quick look at the map shows that many of the worst-hit cities are those where Russian is the predominant language: Kharkiv, Odesa, Kherson.

Watch VideoShow less
MOST READ