food / travel
February 18, 2016
PARIS â€" The laconic hero squints at the sun and ties up his horse. Spurs jingling, boots dusty, he strides into the saloon and faces the suspicious eyes of the other patrons. "You ain't from around these parts, are ya, stranger?" says a white-bearded old-timer, slamming a glass of whisky on the counter.
It may be a classic scene in old Westerns, but it isn't just for cowboys. Though human history is a story of continuous migration, people remain fiercely tribal, eager to divide the world along the reassuring continuum of Us versus Them.
In France, National Front leader Marine Le Pen has proposed abolishing birthright and dual citizenship, and automatically stripping dual citizens of their French passports should they be convicted of any crime. Lurking beneath this patriotic indignation is the belief that, really, those born in France to foreign parents, and all dual citizens, are not French. They're not Us.
But in truth it's never been easy to categorize people according to their origins. Despite the hand-wringing of nationalist political parties, people around the world continue to pack up and move, whether in search of better job opportunities, to escape from war or for myriad other reasons. And if dual citizenship is on the rise â€" since the end of World War II, a growing number of countries have allowed it â€" it's partly for practical reasons, but also because as people travel (and intermarry), their sense of cultural belonging is no longer limited to a single tribe. Many governments require diplomatic employees to move every few years for precisely this reason: The longer people live in a place, the more it feels like home.
Of course, the concept of nation-states and passports is a relatively new one. The Holy Roman Empire only dissolved in 1806, and Italy unified in 1870 (although some would argue that the north and south are still different countries and that somewhere around Naples, bedlam begins.) Germany, which unified in 1871, split into two in 1949 before again unifying in 1990, demonstrating just how often maps have been redrawn.
Migration through human history
When I was a child, I was fascinated by my spinning globe â€" complete with bumps to mark mountain ridges. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, in particular, always caught my attention, because it was so huge. I was stunned when my mother told me one day that the USSR no longer existed. How was that possible? I wondered. Where did it go? And what happened to all those people?
Genetic studies of human migration patterns â€" which examine specific markers on DNA, traceable along the male or female lines â€" render modern notions of nationality highly simplistic. Scientists can use DNA to reveal where an individual's direct male or female line likely lived 10,000 years ago, and it's typically very far from where that person currently lives. So how many generations of your family need to have been living somewhere for you to be "from" there; and on the flip side, at what point do you lose claim over your association with a place once your forebears have left?
There is little agreement on such definitions. In the U.S, as in many countries in the Americas, jus soli, or birthright citizenship, means anyone born on American territory is considered a citizen, no matter where his or her parents are from. Despite that, Donald Trump suggested last year that "birthright babies" aren't really American, and there is substantial backlash against immigrants crossing the U.S. border to give birth.
European countries, too, are hardly in unison in terms of determining citizenship, and thanks to the EU's open-border policy, anyone who can afford to buy a Maltese passport is legally allowed to work in Spain, Italy or Sweden, all of which rely heavily on the notion of jus sanguinis, or citizenship by blood. But while someone's claim to Swedish nationality ends with their parents, the rules are much different in, say, Italy. If you can prove a single direct Italian forebear who never formally renounced citizenship, you can obtain an Italian passport, move to Italy and vote in national elections, no matter where the rest of your family is from.
No tidy categories
Though often illogical or arcane, nationality matters, because which passport you have determines where you are allowed to travel, live, study and work, and, to an extent, what opportunities are open to you. A former colleague of mine, born and raised in Rome, didn't get an Italian passport until he was in his early twenties, because his parents â€" legal residents of Italy â€" were from the Philippines, a country he had visited but never lived in. This belated recognition stung him â€" especially when comparing his experience to that of, say, Thiago Motta, the Brazilian-born footballer who, thanks to an Italian forebear, played for Italy in the 2014 World Cup.
It's often others â€" the white-bearded old-timers drinking whisky at the saloon â€" who size us up and try to slap on a label. It's easier to think about the world when people fit into tidy cultural compartments. But they don't â€" and never have.
Growing up in Paris, I spoke English at home and French at school. Now, at 31, I've spent two-thirds of my life in Europe â€" in France and Italy â€" and the remaining third in four different American cities. I met my husband, who is from Rome, on a transatlantic flight, and we speak Italian with each other.
I'm applying for an Italian passport this year. But getting one won't make me any less American and French: The places weâ€™ve lived, and the languages we speak, are always part of who we are, regardless of ancestry.
Perhaps Marine Le Pen, Nigel Farage, Matteo Salvini and all the other nationalist chest beaters should take a DNA test.
*Cynthia Martens is a Paris-based journalist and translator.
This is Worldcrunch"s uniquely international collection of essays, both original pieces written in English and others translated from the world's best writers in any language. The name for this collection, Rue Amelot, is a nod to the humble street in eastern Paris that we call home. Send ideas and suggestions to email@example.com.
This is Worldcrunch's international collection of essays, which includes pieces written in English and others translated from the world's best writers in any other language. The name for this collection, Rue Amelot, is a nod to the humble address in eastern Paris that we call home. Send ideas and suggestions to firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Russia has decided to cut off relations with the Western military alliance. But Moscow says it was NATO who really wanted the break based on its own internal rationale.
Pavel Tarasenko and Sergei Strokan
October 20, 2021
MOSCOW — The Russian Foreign Ministry's announcement that the country's permanent representation to NATO would be shut down for an indefinite period is a major development. But from Moscow's viewpoint, there was little alternative.
These measures were taken in response to the decision of NATO on Oct. 6 to cut the number of personnel allowed in the Russian mission to the Western alliance by half. NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said the removal of accreditations was from eight employees of the Russian mission to NATO who were identified as undeclared employees of Russian intelligence." We have seen an increase in Russian malicious activity for some time now," Stoltenberg said.
The Russian Foreign Ministry called NATO's expulsion of Russian personnel a "ridiculous stunt," and Stoltenberg's words "the truest hypocrisy."
In announcing the complete shutdown in diplomacy between Moscow and NATO, the Russian Foreign Ministry added: "The 'Russian threat' is being hyped in strengthen the alliance's internal unity and create the appearance of its 'relevance' in modern geopolitical conditions."
The number of Russian diplomatic missions in Brussels has been reduced twice unilaterally by NATO in 2015 and 2018 - after the alliance's decision of April 1, 2014 to suspend all practical civilian and military cooperation between Russia and NATO in the wake of Russia's annexation of Crimea. Diplomats' access to the alliance headquarters and communications with its international secretariat was restricted, military contacts have frozen.
Yet the new closure of all diplomatic contacts is a perilous new low. Kommersant sources said that the changes will affect the military liaison mission of the North Atlantic alliance in Moscow, aimed at promoting the expansion of the dialogue between Russia and NATO. However, in recent years there has been no de facto cooperation. And now, as Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov has announced, the activities of the military liaison mission will be suspended. The accreditation of its personnel will be canceled on November 1.
NATO told RIA Novosti news service on Monday that it regretted Moscow's move. Meanwhile, among Western countries, Germany was the first to respond. "It would complicate the already difficult situation in which we are now and prolong the "ice age," German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas told reporters.
"Lavrov said on Monday, commenting on the present and future of relations between Moscow and the North Atlantic Alliance, "If this is the case, then we see no great need to continue pretending that any changes will be possible in the foreseeable future because NATO has already announced that such changes are impossible.
The suspension of activities of the Russian Permanent Mission to NATO, as well as the military liaison and information mission in Russia, means that Moscow and Brussels have decided to "draw a final line under the partnership relations of previous decades," explained Andrei Kortunov, director-general of the Russian Council on Foreign Affairs, "These relations began to form in the 1990s, opening channels for cooperation between the sides … but they have continued to steadily deteriorate over recent years."
Kortunov believes the current rupture was promoted by Brussels. "A new strategy for NATO is being prepared, which will be adopted at the next summit of the alliance, and the previous partnership with Russia does not fit into its concept anymore."
The existence and expansion of NATO after the end of the Cold War was the main reason for the destruction of the whole complex of relations between Russia and the West. Today, Russia is paying particular attention to marking red lines related to the further steps of Ukraine's integration into NATO. Vladimir Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov previously stated this, warning that in response to the alliance's activity in the Ukrainian direction, Moscow would take "active steps" to ensure its security.
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Kommersant ("The Businessman") was founded in 1989 as the first business newspaper in the Russia. Originally a weekly, Kommersant is now a daily newspaper with strong political and business coverage. It has been owned since 2006 by Alisher Usmanov, the director of a subsidiary of Gazprom.
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