Secrets Of A Courbet 'Ghost' Landscape In Switzerland

Last year, an unknown painting by the famous French artist was left to a small Swiss canton. Months of investigation were needed to uncover the canvas's mysterious elements, but some questions remain.

Looking for clues
Looking for clues
Jura canton / Pierre Montavon
Virginie Nussbaum

DELÉMONT — Last autumn a painting appeared out of the blue, or rather by mail, with a simple letter addressed to the culture office of the canton of Jura in northwestern Switzerland. The letter said that Hugo Saemann, of Delémont, who had died a year earlier in Zurich, had left the canton a painting, Landscape in the Jura. A green oil on canvas signed by a certain Gustave Courbet.

"A Courbet in the canton, this was a first!" recalled Christine Salvadé, head of the culture office, still amazed a year later.

But the exciting surprise was followed by incomprehension: This particular Landscape in the Jura was a so-called "ghost painting," not in the artist's catalogue raisonné nor any of his monographs. The work appears never to have been indexed or exhibited. "It's a rare event in a painter's historiography," says Niklaus Manuel Güdel, an art historian from the region, to whom the canton entrusted the mission of clarifying the situation and determining whether the inheritance could be accepted. So began a long and thrilling investigation of nearly a year.

Güdel began by contacting all the specialists he knew, but none could shed light on the mysterious painting; the art historian feared it might be a fake.

The man for the job was Klaus Herding, a German expert in Courbet's work, known for having examined almost 80 of the famous French artist's paintings. But to decide on the Jura canvas, he had to see it with his own eyes. So one January morning, Güdel drove to Frankfurt, a large parcel in his trunk. "It was early, it was still dark and it rained.... It was like a scene from a spy movie."

From the moment he held the painting in his hands, Herding was surprised by its intensity. "It's an extremely animated painting. There are at least nine variations of green that, on their own, demonstrate a moving and impulsive nature."

Gustave Courbet —"Paysage du Jura," 1872

After the initial thrill came the stylistic analysis: Does the painting bear Courbet's mark? His signature seemed authentic, and Herding recognized the earthy colors that were so dear to the artist. In the foreground the expert observed a patch of road, obviously hastily painted. Not surprising to Herding, who believes that Courbet, up to his neck in debt at the end of his life, would have hurried to finish the painting in order to sell it.

After a few hours of inspection, Herding's conclusions were unequivocal: It is definitely a Courbet, most likely started in 1864 and completed eight years later.

The painting is authentic, yes, but what about its provenance? What hands did it go through? This is not an anecdotal consideration in a time when looted art is making news, with the 2013 Gurlitt affair, in which hundreds of artworks confiscated by the Nazis were found in Germany in the possession of Cornelius Gurlitt, the son of a Nazi-era art collector, or the recent decision in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, to part with a painting by John Constable, seized by the Vichy regime in 1942.

The place and the date were enough to ring all the alarm bells.

"Today, we can no longer accept a work, ethically or legally, without preliminary research," said Marc-André Renold, director of the University of Geneva Art-Law Center. To verify the legality of the acquisition, the specialized lawyer dove into the work's past. "These paintings without a history can unfortunately reveal to be cases of abuse or stolen objects."

And the itinerary of Landscape in the Jura did raise some concern. According to Béatrice Saemann, the sister-in-law of the deceased, the painting was given to Hugo Saemann by his employer when he was working in Germany in 1939. "The place and the date were enough to ring all the alarm bells: I knew we would have to dig deeper," Renold said.

Renold and his team searched databases of art dispossessed by the Nazis, but the Courbet was nowhere to be found. An infrared analysis of the painting, carried out in May, revealed traces of the artist's characteristic pallette knife, still engraved under the varnish, but no label attesting to any place of passage.

"The family had the painting reinforced on a new canvas in the 1980s, so any potential customs stamps disappeared with the original frame," explained Güdel, who also frantically pursued the investigation. "I was no longer sleeping at night," he said. The historian dedicated his Christmas vacation to examining different possible scenarios, with the hypothesis that the painting was given to Saemann as a gift by the Von Roll foundry in the Jura when Saemann became its director.

Our little canton can be a model for how to conduct an investigation.

After many months of fastidious research, and though the painting's itinerary remains unclear, the lawyers ruled out a fraudulent past. "If one day someone comes out of the woods and reclaims the painting, the canton will be able to say that it acquired the painting entirely in good faith," said Renold.

With this ultimate green light, the gift was accepted last August. Landscape in the Jura, estimated at 300,000 Swiss francs (about $305,400), joined the permanent collection of the canton's museum of art and history where it will be on exhibit until the end of the year. "This work is a magnificent gift for the region," rejoiced Ms. Salvadé. "It is also shows that our little canton can be a model for how to conduct an investigation."

One question still captivates the public: In which corner of the Jura did the famous painter set up his easel?

"Courbet's landscapes are generally objective representations of specific places," notes Marco Jalla, art history assistant at the University of Geneva and a specialist in artistic geography. "In Switzerland, Courbet painted sites liked at the time by tourists and Swiss buyers: the Chillon Castle an island castle on Lake Geneva or the Grotto of the Giants, near Saillon, very popular in the 19th century."

At the end of August, Salvadé challenged art lovers on Facebook to find the exact placement of the little stone bridge. Since then, speculation has been rife: between Vermes and Envelier? In La Roche Saint-Jean? In Ornans, a commune in the French Jura where Courbet was born? "People went there, searching, some even sent us points on Google Maps," Salvadé said, smiling. "Inhabitants of the Jura really took ownership of this painting!"

The most plausible hypothesis, made by a pensioner in Delémont, is that the painting was done in Gorges du Pichoux, in the Haute-Sorne municipality. But Güdel is skeptical. "The outline of the waterway doesn't fit. And we don't have any proof that Courbet ventured that far." The historian is currently exploring a new "serious trail."

Salvadé has promised the best detective a bottle of Damassine, a damson plum liqueur, on Nov. 11, Saint Martin's Day. Until then, all bets and eyes are wide open.

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Harder Time: How Egypt Cuts Prisoner Communication With Loved Ones

Letters from inmates provide a crucial link with the outside world, and yet the process of sending and receiving them in Egyptian prisons is both arduous and arbitrary as an extra means of control.

Relatives speak with defendants during a trial in a Cairo court.

Nada Arafat

CAIRO – Abdelrahman ElGendy says letters were a crucial lifeline for him during the time he spent locked up in five different prisons between 2013 and 2020. "Letters were not only important, they literally saved my life," he says. "I was only living because I was looking forward to them from one visit to the next, and I would read them over until the paper became worn and torn."

Last month, the family of imprisoned software engineer and activist Alaa Abd El Fattah — who had been held in remand detention for over two years until his referral to emergency trial last week — announced it would take legal steps to ensure that Abd El Fattah is able to send letters to them following a period when prison authorities refused to allow him any correspondence.

According to the family, besides prison visits once a month, Abd El Fattah's letters are the only way they can gain assurance of his condition, and when his letters are denied, that in itself is an indicator that his treatment in detention is worsening. The numerous legal requests and official complaints by the family have been met only with silence by authorities.

While letters provide a crucial link between prisoners and the outside world, the process of sending and receiving them in Egyptian prisons is an arduous one as a result of arbitrary restrictions put in place by authorities.

Mada Masr spoke with a number of former prisoners about their relationship to letters during their incarceration and the way prison administrators constrained their right to send and receive correspondence.

Two letters per month

The law regulating Egypt's prisons and the Interior Ministry's prison bylaws stipulate that prisoners have a right to send out two letters per month and that prison administrators may allow more than two at their discretion. Prisoners are also legally entitled to receive letters.

Those sentenced to hard labor — a type of sentence that in practice usually entitles prisoners to fewer visits — are allowed to send one letter a week, and prisoners in remand detention technically have the right to exchange letters with family and friends at any time. However, in all cases, prison bylaws grant prison authorities the right to monitor, censor and refuse any correspondence sent and received , a power the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights deems a "violation to the personal freedom of prisoners, as it intrudes on their privacy."

A form of punishment

Prison authorities often restrict prisoner letters as a form of punishment, a measure that came under the spotlight when correspondence from Abd El Fattah to his family was arbitrarily cut off for an extended period last month.

Mohamed Fathy, a lawyer, says that Abd El Fattah's family pursued all possible legal procedures to push for allowing the exchange of letters with him, the last of which was a report submitted by the family to the Maadi District Court. This was preceded by an official notice through a court bailiff to the head of the Prisons Authority and telegraphs to the interior minister, Prisons Authority director and the superintendent of Maximum Security Wing 2 of Tora Prison Complex. Abd El Fattah's mother, Laila Soueif, also sent official requests to the superintendent on a daily basis.

Outside the gates of Tora Prison

Aside from the legal procedures, Soueif spent over a week waiting at the gates of Tora Prison Complex in the hope of receiving a letter from her son, a circumstance that gained particular urgency after Abd El Fattah signaled he was contemplating suicide during a detention renewal session in September.

This marked the second time that Abd El Fattah's family has embarked on a legal campaign in order to be granted their right to exchange letters with him. As the coronavirus pandemic first gripped the world in early 2020, the family went through a similar struggle after authorities halted all prison visitations as part of its COVID-19 restrictions.

During this period, letters became the principal form of communication between prisoners and the outside world. The Interior Ministry halted all prison visits from March until it reinstated them again in August 2020, though they were restricted to once a month.

Gendy, who was released from prison in January 2020, one month before the outbreak of the coronavirus in Egypt was officially announced, says that even in ordinary circumstances, letters were of vital importance since only direct family members are allowed visitation rights.

He says he used to give his family around 10 letters during every visit, addressed both to family and friends. "I used to keep an open letter to write to my mother about everything that was happening because the visitation time did not allow me to tell her all the details," he says.

Arbitrary restrictions

Even though the right to correspondence for prisoners is enshrined in the law, in reality, the process is an arduous one for both prisoners and their families due to the conditions of Egyptian prisons and arbitrary restrictions put in place by authorities, according to the accounts of several former prisoners.

It typically begins when the prison warden announces the visitation schedule for the following day. Prisoners hurry to pen letters before lights out, though some continue to write in the darkness. A prisoner who has a scheduled visit then gathers all the letters from his cellmates and hands them over to his visiting family members, who in turn give them to the rest of the prisoners' families outside, either in person or via WhatsApp if the family lives in another governorate.

In parallel, the families of prisoners who share a cell often create a WhatApp group to inform each other about visitation times. "Some families in nearby governorates send physical letters inside with the families that have scheduled visits. But those who live in remote governorates and who cannot afford to travel to the prison simply write letters and send pictures of them to the WhatsApp group," says Amgad Samir*, who was imprisoned for two years in Tora Prison Complex and was the facilitator for letter exchanges in his cell.

Marked in red

According to Samir, families would print out the letters sent via WhatsApp to deliver them to the prisoners, but the prison administration would sometimes not allow the entry of printed letters, so some families would volunteer to rewrite them by hand. "The sister of one of the detainees in Alexandria would rewrite dozens of letters in one day and would ask the children of some of the families to help her," Samir says. "Some families would send their letters with more than one person to make sure that at least one version made it inside."

Any letter being sent or received from prison is required to first be reviewed by the National Security Agency (NSA) officer stationed in the prison, who usually delegates a subordinate officer to read the letters before allowing them through or to "mark them in red," at which point the officer reads the letters himself to approve or deny them, according to Samir. After this screening phase is over, explains Samir, the officer hands over the letters to the mail facilitator, a designated prisoner, who then hands them out in the cell. "I would look at the faces of those who had letters sent to them, it was as if they had just been released," Samir says.

Khaled Dawoud, a journalist and the former head of the Dostour Party who was released from prison in April after nearly one and a half years behind bars, says that prison authorities tightly restrict prison correspondence. "Everything in prison is cracked down upon: food, clothes and even letters," Dawoud says.

According to Dawoud, the NSA officer in Tora Liman Prison, another maximum security facility in the complex, would sometimes force prisoners to rewrite their letters after redacting sections describing things like prison conditions, for example, to avoid them making it into the press or being circulated on social media.

Disseminating information about prison conditions can even lead to further prosecution, as was the case with imprisoned attorney Mohamed Ramadan in December 2020, when he was rotated into another case by the State Security Prosecution after he was ordered released on charges of "sending letters from prison with the intention of destabilization."

Photo of three women speaking with imprisoned defendants at a Cairo court

Relatives speaking with defendants at a Cairo court

Stringer/APA Images/ZUMA

Fear of being forgotten

Banning letters is a form of punishment and pressure that authorities deploy arbitrarily against prisoners, according to lawyer former detainee Mahienour al-Massry, who has spent time in prisons. She tells Mada Masr that following the reinstatement of prison visitations in August 2020, after they had been halted amid the coronavirus outbreak, the National Security officer in Qanater Women's Prison told her she had to choose between visitations and letter correspondence, but that she couldn't have both. Massry refused the ultimatum, and after negotiating with the officer, was eventually granted "exceptional" approval for both under the condition that she only send two letters a month.

"Even though letter correspondence from prison is a legal right that is non-negotiable, there were always negotiations and struggles about sending and receiving them, about how many letters were allowed, and about their content," she says. "Prisoners inside for criminal offenses were in a different situation from political prisoners. The latter had a chance to talk and negotiate, whereas the former did not."

Massry recalls a situation when the NSA officer in Qanater took back some letters that she had initially been allowed to receive. "He said, 'I don't have a reason. This was an order from the National Security Agency. You could try next time, maybe they will go through.' They are moody like that," Masry says. The letters were returned to the family, who then delivered them to Mahienour in a subsequent visit without any objections from the officer. Another time, a letter was confiscated because it had the term "son of a bitch," which the officer deemed "foul language."

Looking for something to say

During an earlier stint in prison in 2016 in Damanhour, Massry did not receive any letters for a month. When she went to the officer to inquire after them, she found that he had a pile of letters addressed to her on his desk. She says the officer simply told her: "Sorry, I didn't have time to go through them all."

After the coronavirus outbreak in March 2020, letters to and from prison were banned for two months in Tora Prison Complex while visitations continued to be suspended until August. During this period the prison was overwhelmed with letters, as they were often the only form of communication with detainees. According to Dawoud, the National Security officer was unable to go through hundreds of letters a day, even with the help of another officer. After long negotiations, the officer finally approved the sending of letters to and from prison under the condition they did not exceed two passages.

Dawoud says that he used his letters to simply reassure his family with brief sentences. "Sometimes I couldn't find anything to say because on the one hand, I can't speak about prison conditions, otherwise the letter would be confiscated; and on the other hand I couldn't talk about personal issues," he says.

Despite that, the short letters were enough for Dawoud to check in on his father, who was battling cancer and eventually died. "One sentence was enough for me to know that he was okay. It was enough for me to be reassured," he says.

News about COVID-19

In certain cases, letters have taken on additional importance beyond allowing families and prisoners to check in on each other.

Samir says he was able to help out a foreign cellmate who was charged in a criminal case without the authorities ever informing his consulate or assigning him a lawyer. Samir was able to tell his wife about this prisoner in a letter, but he made sure to use coded language in order to evade surveillance.

Samir would also use coded language to pass on information about COVID-19 in prison that would otherwise be flagged and confiscated by the NSA officer. "We replaced the word 'corona' with 'mosquitoes.' I would write that someone had been bitten by mosquitoes yesterday, and my sister would understand what that meant," he says.

Using this simple code, Samir was able to communicate the prison's coronavirus situation to the outside world until the officer realized that someone was passing along information and pressured him to confess. "I had two choices: either lie and say that there was a mobile phone in the room, or tell him the truth. I told the truth," he says. As punishment, he was not permitted to exchange letters for a period before the officer finally allowed it again.

"The importance of letters does not just lie in their content," Gendy says. "They are also a testament that people outside still remember you, because the fear of being forgotten is every prisoner's worst nightmare."


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