February 17, 2015
GRASSE — It all started with a box. A box jam-packed with treasure — previously unseen, extremely rare Picasso drawings and collages, 271 works altogether. The box has been through everything imaginable. It survived flooding of the painter's workshop when the Seine River overflowed its banks, the German occupation, the Liberation, and it was carted about from home to home.
The deceased Pierre Daix, the best expert on the painter's works, once told us, "Picasso was often ejected from his Parisian workshops. He didn't know how to store his works anymore. It made him furious."
The box, one among thousands, then wound up in one of the villas on the French Riviera where the artist lived. Once Picasso filled one home with his paintings, he would buy another one to fill that too.
When the artist died in 1973, the box disappeared. No one noticed because his two villas, the "Californie" and the "Notre-Dame-de-Vie," were overflowing with paintings, sketches and packages.
A box worth €60 million
The box reappeared almost half a century later, and in a completely unexpected way. In 2010, electrician Pierre Le Guennec and his wife Danielle made themselves known to the Picasso Administration and claimed certificates of authenticity for these unpublished works. The box, they said, was given to them by Pablo Picasso and Jacqueline, his late wife who died in 1986. During the 40 previous years, they claimed to have forgotten it in their garage, at the back of their small house in Mouans-Sartoux, near Cannes.
This caused turmoil among the painter's heirs, who refused to believe the story of the gift and filed a complaint. The electrician and his wife were put under investigation for possession of stolen goods. The box was sealed off. Experts estimated its value at 60 million euros. Was it a gift or stolen goods? The trial that started in Grasse on Feb. 10 represents an unusual confrontation. On one side are the electrician and his wife. On the other, the millionaire heirs of Picasso's fortune.
Pierre le Guennec at his February trial — Photo: AFP expand=1] video screenshot
It's the story of a modest couple of few words, and it doesn't seem ready to reveal its secrets. For the past four years, Pierre and Danielle Le Guennec have stuck to the same explanation: This collection of works was given to them, end of story. When, how, why? That's not as clear. It was in 1971 or in 1972. They don't remember exactly when. The drawings were "stuffed in a bin bag," Danielle told investigators. Pierre never mentioned a bin bag, only a box of old papers. "Jacqueline handed it to me and said, "Here, for you," and we never spoke of it again."
"A gift is a gift"
It's a mystery especially because Picasso, who was well aware of the market value of his work, always autographed the art he gave away. His late wife Jacqueline, guardian of the temple who worshiped the husband she called "my sunshine," revered each little piece of paper touched by his divine pen. According to Anne-Sophie Nardon, the lawyer for Jacqueline Picasso's daughter, "Picasso kept everything — used Metro tickets, bills, scribbled restaurant checks. So throwing out a box of drawings is unimaginable."
Jacqueline was also very organized. During the preliminary inquiry, a significant debt was also unearthed: In 1983, Picasso's widow loaned Le Guennec 540,000 francs (140,000 euros) so he could buy a taxi license. "If there indeed had been a gift, he could have sold the paintings to pay for it, couldn't he?" Nardon says.
On the phone, Danielle keeps it short. "A gift is a gift, and we've always said that. We just want to put an end to it, so we're looking forward to the trial."
We met the couple four years ago. In their modest home, there were copies of posters for Picasso exhibitions. The Le Guennecs showed us the garage in question where the treasure had been "forgotten" for 40 years. "Art is like Chinese for us," the couple kept saying. But the inventory they addressed to the Picasso Administration had been written very professionally. And their brother-in-law, we discovered, had an art gallery.
The cousin, driver and collector
Most importantly, Pierre Le Guennec remained oddly silent about his family relationship with the painter's driver, Maurice Bresnu (nicknamed "Teddy"). Teddy is Pierre's cousin by marriage who, it seems, got him to work for Picasso. The painter "spoiled" Teddy with hundreds of drawings. He died in 1991, leaving his widow to manage the gold mine.
A prestigious New York auction entitled, "Picasso, the secret collection," was held at Christie's in 1998 with the approval of Picasso's heirs. There were others in various places. Teddy Bresnu's widow died in 2009 with no children, leaving behind an estate of Picasso drawings and sketches worth 500,000 euros. An auction was even planned for December 2010 for full and final settlement.
That's when events took a dramatic turn. "The genealogist that managed the inheritance called us to warn us Pierre Le Guennec was part of the heirs of Maurice Bresnu's widow. We were astounded," says Jean-Jacques Neuer, the lawyer of the Picasso Administration.
Speaking to L’Obs, the Le Guennecs were always evasive concerning their links to Teddy: The two couples did indeed live in neighboring houses in the 1970s, they conceded, but they had a quarrel. "They looked down on us. We didn't even attend Maurice's funeral," Danielle told us. The two couples didn't see each other again for 30 years, even though Teddy Bresnu had been best man at the Le Guennecs wedding.
Teddy lived in self-sufficiency with his wife. He didn't show off. It was only shortly before his death that he decided to monetize his treasure. He went through a family relation, who owned a produce store in Saint-Ouen, on the outskirts of Paris. The latter contacted an antique dealer at the flea market, who knew an art expert. The small group was wiretapped during the investigation. What came out is reminescent of a Michel Audiard movie:
"You're gonna be mad at us, but we spilled the beans," the greengrocer’s wife said.
"That's OK. We have nothing to feel guilty about. Maya's done the certificates and all."
Maya? That's Maya Picasso, one of the few people entitled to attribute the precious certificates of authenticity. Why did the heir look the other way? At the time, experts of Picasso's works were surprised by the size of Teddy's collection, which included erotic drawings representing Jacqueline, an unusual gift to make your driver.
To add value to some unsigned drawings that he had, Teddy even forged Picasso's signature with a pencil. It was so clumsily executed that Maya asked for these fake signatures to be removed. "Maya didn’t suspect a thing," he lawyer says. "She has been very shocked by these last revelations. She was conned. She believed in Teddy's good faith. And all the art dealers' who were pressuring her so the auction could take place."
"My aunt told me all the Picassos had been stolen," says Dominique, the niece of Teddy's widow. "When Teddy died, she ended up alone, so she made me come to her side by luring me with lots of promises. But we got nothing. I’m still a cleaning lady today. That being said, I prefer not having touched any of the Picasso money. It's dirty money."
Like Tolkien's cursed ring, the Picasso treasure drives people crazy. The artist left no will and had fallen out with his children, leaving a big mess behind him. Teddy Bresnu's widow, who never wrote down her last wishes, never really enjoyed her fortune. "She was incredibly cheap," her niece says. "In her fridge, everything was expired."
But strangely enough, once in a while, "gifts" still reappear. In 2011, two signed Picasso vases were auctioned, earning their lucky owners around 250,000 euros. "It's a gift Mrs. Bresnu made me," swears Michel F., the son of none other than the cleaning lady of Teddy's widow.
In the 1970s, the Picassos fully trusted Teddy and his cousin Pierre Le Guennec, who had replaced all the alarm systems in the painter's homes. Did the two men make the most to help themselves? A close relation of Teddy's remembers a day when he was furious at Pierre Le Guennec, who had "messed up at the Picassos," a situation that threatened to "cause problems for all of them." He claims he also heard Teddy's widow accusing the electrician of "helping himself to the Picassos."
Charles-Etienne Gudin, lawyer for the Le Guennecs, challenges this assertion, of course. "No link has been proven between the Bresnu collection and my client. The case was even partially dismissed."
In fact, the plaintiff's lawyers will have to acknowledge that there is no tangible proof of complicity between the driver and the electrician, only suspicion.
"But to prove the stolen goods, there's no need to find the author of the theft," says Sabine Cordesse, a lawyer for Maya Picasso. "It's the same story for the artwork despoiled by the Nazis. Possessing them is an offense."
If only boxes could speak.
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As Turkey fears the EU closing ranks over defense, Turkish President Erdogan is looking to Boris Johnson as a post-Brexit ally, especially as Angela Merkel steps aside. This could undermine the deal where Ankara limits refugee entry into Europe, and other dossiers too.
Carolina Drüten and Gregor Schwung
October 19, 2021
BERLIN — According to the Elysée Palace, the French presidency "can't understand" why Turkey would overreact, since the defense pact that France recently signed in Paris with Greece is not aimed at Ankara. The agreement covers billions of euros' worth of military equipment, and the two countries have committed to come to each other's aid if they are attacked.Although Paris denies this, it is difficult to see the agreement as anything other than a message, perhaps even a provocation, targeted at Turkey.
Officially, the Turkish government is unruffled, saying the pact doesn't represent a military threat. But the symbolism is clear: with the U.S., UK and Australia recently announcing the Aukus security pact, Ankara fears the EU may be closing ranks when it comes to all military issues.
What will Aukus mean for NATO?
Turkey has long felt left out in the cold, at odds with the European Union over a number of issues. Yet now President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is setting his sights on another country, which also wants to become more independent from Europe: the UK.
Europe's approach to security and defense is changing dramatically. Over the past few months, while the U.S. was negotiating the Aukus pact with Britain and Australia behind the EU's back, a submarine deal between Australia and France, which would have been worth billions, was scrapped.
The EU is happy to keep Erdogan waiting
Officially, Turkey is keeping its cards close to its chest. Addressing foreign journalists in Istanbul, Erdogan's chief advisor Ibrahim Kalin said the country was not involved in Aukus, but they hope it doesn't have a negative impact on NATO. However, the agreement will have a significant effect on Turkey.
"Before Aukus, the Turks thought that the U.S. would prevent the EU from adopting a defense policy that was independent of NATO," says Sinan Ülgen, an expert on Turkey at the Brussels think tank Carnegie Europe. "Now they are afraid that Washington may make concessions for France, which could change things."
Macron sees post-Merkel power vacuum
Turkey's concerns may well prove to be justified. Outgoing German Chancellor Angela Merkel always argued for closer collaboration with Turkey, partly because it is an important trading partner and partly because it has a direct influence on the influx of migrants from Asia and the Middle East to Europe.
Merkel consistently thwarted France's plans for a stricter approach from Brussels towards Turkey, and she never supported Emmanuel Macron's ideas about greater strategic autonomy for countries within the EU.
But now she that she's leaving office, Macron is keen to make the most of the power vacuum Merkel will leave behind. The prospect of France's growing influence is "not especially good news for Turkey," says Ian Lesser, vice president of the think tank German Marshall Fund.
Ankara fears the defense pact between France and Greece could be a sign of what is to come. According to a statement from the Turkish Foreign Ministry, the agreement is aimed "at NATO member Turkey" and is damaging to the alliance. Observers also assume the agreement means that France is supporting Greece's claims to certain territories in the Mediterranean which remain disputed under international law, with Turkey's own sovereignty claims.
Paris is a close ally of Athens. In the summer of 2020, Greece and Turkey were poised on the threshold of a military conflict in the eastern Mediterranean. Since then, Athens has ordered 24 Rafale fighter jets from France, and the new pact includes a deal for France to supply them with three frigates.
French President Emmanuel Macron and Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis on September 27 in Paris
Erdogan’s EU wish list
It's not the first time that Ankara has felt snubbed by the EU. Since Donald Trump left the White House, Turkey has been making a considerable effort to improve relations with Brussels. "The situation in the eastern Mediterranean is peaceful and the migrant problem is under control," says Kalin. Now it is "high time" that Europe does something for Turkey.
Erdogan's wish list is extensive: making it easier for Turks to get EU visas, renegotiating the refugee deal, making more funds available to Turkey as it continues the process of joining the EU, and moderniszing the customs union. But there is no movement on any of these issues in Brussels. They're happy to keep Erdogan waiting.
Britain consistently supported Turkey's ambition to join the EU
Now he is starting to look elsewhere. At the UN summit in September, Erdogan had a meeting with British Prime Minister Boris Johnson at the recently opened Turkish House in New York. Kalin says it was a "very good meeting" and that the two countries are "closely allied strategic partners." He says they plan to work together more closely on trade, but with a particular focus on defense.
Turkey's second largest export market
The groundwork for collaboration was already in place. Britain consistently supported Turkey's ambition to join the EU, and gave an ultimate proof of friendship after the failed coup in 2016. Unlike other European capitals, London reacted quickly, calling the coup an "attack on Turkish democracy," and its government has generally held back in its criticism of Turkey.
At the end of last year, Johnson and Erdogan signed a new free trade agreement, which will govern commerce between the two countries post-Brexit. Erdogan has called it "the most important treaty for Turkey since the customs agreement with the EU in 1995."
After Germany, Britain is Turkey's second largest export market. "Turkey now has the opportunity to build a new partnership with the United Kingdom and it must make the most of it," says economist Ali Kücükcolak from the Istanbul Commerce University.
Erdogan is well aware of this, as Turkey is in desperate need of an economic boost. Inflation currently stands at 19%, and the currency's value is consistently falling. Turks are feeling the impact on their daily lives: food and rent are becoming increasingly expensive, while salaries remain unchanged.
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Die Welt ("The World") is a German daily founded in Hamburg in 1946, and currently owned by the Axel Springer AG company, Europe's largest publishing house. Now based in Berlin, Die Welt is sold in more than 130 countries. A Sunday edition called Welt am Sonntag has been published since 1948.
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