October 07, 2016
BERLIN â€" At first glance, Leyla is like many other young women in Germany. The 29-year-old auditor enjoys going to the beach with friends, reading womenâ€™s magazines, exercising at the gym.
Leyla recalls reaching puberty, back in the 1990s when she lived with her Turkish immigrant parents.
â€œMy mother taught my sister and I from a young age that we could do whatever we wanted to,â€ says Leyla. (Our editorial department changed her name to grant her anonymity.) The girls did not wear headscarves. They were allowed to wear makeup, go to parties, attend university. They did go to a mosque as cultural habit and also because they felt it was their family duty, much like their friends who attended church. The only difference between them and their Christian friends was that the mothers of their friends did not talk about hymens.
Leylaâ€™s mother spoke about virginity â€" frequently. â€œGuard it as if it were sacred,â€ she told her daughters on a regular basis, Leyla recalls. â€œMen can fake their virginity, women canâ€™t.â€
Leyla, anyway, wasnâ€™t interested in sex growing up. That was until she fell in love at the age of 18. â€œI was sure that I would marry him,â€ Leyla says about her first love, smiling shyly. But things turned out differently. The relationship failed after they spent four years together. â€œOnly afterwards did I realize what that meant for me. He can always find a new girl but would someone still take me, an impure woman?â€
A ripped hymen is a catastrophe for many Muslim families, even today. Kazim ErdoÄŸan, a Berlin-based family counselor and psychologist who has many clients of Turkish descent, is familiar with this problem. â€œTo the majority of parents, their daughterâ€™s hymen is more important than their job. Even in progressive, academic families,â€ he says. â€œWomen are taught that men are evil and obsessed with impure thoughts while women are responsible for upholding the familyâ€™s honor.â€
Young women, in despair about no longer being virgins, often seek his help. They are torn between patriarchal tradition and the modern lifestyle Germany offers.
Leyla prays five times a day, fasts during Ramadan and does not drink alcohol. â€œI cannot imagine marrying a man who is not Muslim,â€ she says. â€œI donâ€™t want to be the only one going to the mosque when we start having children.â€
But Leyla would never allow anyone to dictate to her about whether she can wear tight jeans or high heels. And she does not want to feel ashamed for having had sex outside of marriage. Leyla dated a second man for two years and shared her past with him. But, she says, he treated her less respectfully with time, was often jealous and tried to stop her from going out with her friends. When Leyla finally broke it off with him, she wondered whether he would have treated a virgin the same way.
A year ago, Leyla met a police officer â€" a tall, polite Turkish man with green eyes. She liked him and they texted back and forth for weeks. This time, she did not tell him of her previous relationships. â€œIn front of him, I was the thoughtful Leyla that I normally am,â€ she says. â€œBut I wasnâ€™t the Leyla who has tried marijuana and alcohol and who is no longer a virgin.â€
Layla and the officer traveled together and went on dates to trendy restaurants. Once, he woke her up at 6 am and drove her to the seaside. With other men, she usually stayed home on the sofa and watched TV. â€œIt was the first time that I could dream together with a man,â€ says Leyla. They talked about their feelings, about their faith and he said he does not want to have sex before marriage. He was still a virgin, after all.
Leyla, who was 28 at that time, had friends who had already started families. Leyla would like to have a family as well. That autumn, her boyfriend and she decided to get married. â€œI was so in love, everything was just perfect except for that one tiny, little thing,â€ she says.
Obscured view, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany â€" Photo: Glasseyes View
For the first time, Leyla typed the term â€œripped hymenâ€ on Google and discovered that there are little plastic bags, filled with artificial blood, which can be inserted into the vagina. Costing 50 euros, these pouches are supposed to rip during sex. Leyla decided that it was too risky. She searched online for the word â€œreconstructionâ€ and found the website of a private clinic that promised the opportunity to â€œbe a virgin on your wedding night.â€
The clinicâ€™s plastic surgeon is one of the few doctors in Germany who openly advertises hymen reconstructions. â€œOthers do it secretly,â€ says the German doctor, who wants to remain anonymous so he can frankly discuss his work. â€œDue to the current security situation, we are very reluctant to publicly discuss such a delicate topic.â€
The doctor says he reconstructs the hymen of about 200 women a year, typically when they plan to get married. â€œIt is mostly young women from immigrant families who come to us, who were born here, raised here and like to go out and have a boyfriend,â€ says the doctor. â€œNearly 80% of the women are Muslim. The other women are of a strict Christian faith and may be from Kosovo or Albania, where virginity (before) marriage is still actively promoted.â€
His patients include couples from religious families who demand a bloody bed sheet from the wedding night as proof of the coupleâ€™s virginity. Other patients are women who come to his clinic alone. For them, itâ€™s not so much about upholding religious rules as about not disappointing their fathers or future husbands, he says.
The surgeon who performed Leylaâ€™s operation said there was no guarantee that her hymen would bleed when it ripped again. The surgeon made a few stitches to seal the vaginal membrane, creating a bulge. Itâ€™s an absurd procedure as the membrane is not meant to be knit together once itâ€™s torn.
Leylaâ€™s doctor is aware that he is earning money doing an unnecessary surgery because of the faulty view society has of sexually active women. â€œI do not wag a moral finger at the women,â€ he says. â€œI am merely helping someone out of a tight spot.â€ For 1200 euros, that is.
Heâ€™s not the only doctor who profits from the virginity business. Some gynecologists issue â€œvirginity certificatesâ€ to protect daughters from their skeptical families. But, by doing so, these doctors support an inaccurate idea about the female anatomy.
The virginity myth
Anette Debertin of the Hannover Medical School busts the myth about virginity. â€œThe condition of a hymen usually does not allow for speculating on that womanâ€™s virginity,â€ says Debertin. The hymen is not a lid on top of the vagina. Itâ€™s more like a border that frames it.
Only a quarter of women who have sex for the first time bleed. For many women, the hymen rips while exercising or itâ€™s so elastic that it doesnâ€™t rip at all. Leyla knows this but ignores this fact-based argument in favor of hundreds of years of tradition.
Two weeks before her civil ceremony, Leyla and her fiancé decide to sleep with each other. â€œBoth of us couldnâ€™t stand to wait any longer,â€ she says. But she didnâ€™t bleed â€" not even a little bit. Her fiancé looked at her suspiciously, hissing, â€œdonâ€™t act as if you are a virgin now.â€
The couple fought and Leyla broke into tears but she didnâ€™t tell her fiancé the truth. â€œI felt like such a failure,â€ she recalls. They canceled the wedding using her fatherâ€™s heart condition as a pretext. Leyla feared that her fiancé would turn his back on her forever. He sent her an email with a confession. He wasnâ€™t a virgin when they slept together but heâ€™s sure that she lied to him about being a virgin. â€œI need a woman who is pure,â€ he wrote to her.
Leyla is desperate and angry. She thinks itâ€™s unfair that men are allowed to have sex and women are not. She says that she cannot find anyone with whom she can talk to about this. â€œI donâ€™t think that anyone would understand me,â€ she says. â€œI have about 100 friends and good acquaintances but none of them would be able to understand me.â€
Even Leylaâ€™s sister, who drinks alcohol and loves to go out, values chastity. When the wife of Leylaâ€™s uncle died when he was 50, he wanted to remarry â€" and he searched for a virgin. â€œHe did actually find a 30-year-old Turkish woman who was supposedly pure but he doesnâ€™t have anything in common with her and does not love her,â€ Leyla says. â€œHe admits now that he is very unhappy.â€
But why does this virginity myth persist? This view of virginity exists not only in Islam but in other religions and cultures as well. Although the Bible, like the Koran, does not explicitly ask women to be virgins on their wedding day, virginity has played a central role in Christianity for centuries.
Only an â€œunspoiledâ€ woman was allowed to be the mother of Jesus and was venerated as the â€œblessed virginâ€ and the embodiment of purity. Virginity was even protected by law until the 20th century in Germany. Men who had sex with their fiancés but did not marry them could, in Germany at least, be forced to pay the womanâ€™s family compensation as her prospects on the marriage market were diminished. This section of the German civil code was only eradicated in 1998.
Berlin's Kreuzberg neighborhood â€" Photo: Regine Debatty
The gains of sexual revolution in German society are yet to make a mark in many Muslim communities. â€œWe have to explain to parents and young men that itâ€™s totally nonsensical to insist on intact hymens,â€ says ErdoÄŸan, the psychologist. â€œBut we cannot do so without the help of young women.â€
Do women like Leyla have to be more rebellious? Does Islam need a sexual revolution as womenâ€™s rights activist Seyran AteÅŸ has called for?
Leyla knows that things will have to change. If she has children of her own one day, she says she does not want to pass on this hymen mania to them. â€œYou lie to God, you lie to your family but, most of all, you lie to yourself,â€ she says.
Still, Leyla is indecisive. On the one hand, she would like for sex to be seen as something that is not dirty. â€œMen and women get to know each other better that way, it is something beautiful and you have to find out if the two of you are compatible.â€ On the other hand, she is still in contact with her former fiancé and hopes that he will believe her lie about her prior virginity.
Throughout our interview, Leyla stresses that she is not a â€œwhore,â€ the term she uses to describe women in Turkish clubs who wear miniskirts and low-cut blouses. Women, in her opinion, shouldnâ€™t sleep with too many men.
ErdoÄŸan is not surprised to hear this. â€œWe, once and for all, have to make it clear that a woman who is fond of her sexuality is not a whore.â€ And this point is hardly limited to Muslim society alone.
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A neo-Nazi has been buried in the former grave of a Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender – not an oversight, but a deliberate provocation. This is just one more example of antisemitism on the rise in Germany, and society's inability to respond.
Eva Marie Kogel
October 24, 2021
BERLIN — If you want to check the state of your society, there's a simple test: as the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, John Jay McCloy, said in 1949, the touchstone for a democracy is the well-being of Jews. This litmus test is still relevant today. And it seems Germany would not pass.
Incidents are piling up. Most recently, groups of neo-Nazis from across the country traveled to a church near Berlin for the funeral of a well-known far-right figure. He was buried in the former grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender, a gravesite chosen deliberately by the right-wing extremists.
The incident at the cemetery
They intentionally chose a Jewish grave as an act of provocation, trying to gain maximum publicity for this act of desecration. And the cemetery authorities at the graveyard in Stahnsdorf fell for it. The church issued an immediate apology, calling it a "terrible mistake" and saying they "must immediately see whether and what we can undo."
There are so many incidents that get little to no media attention.
It's unfathomable that this burial was allowed to take place at all, but now the cemetery authorities need to make a decision quickly about how to put things right. Otherwise, the grave may well become a pilgrimage site for Holocaust deniers and antisemites.
The incident has garnered attention in the international press and it will live long in the memory. Like the case of singer-songwriter Gil Ofarim, who recently claimed he was subjected to antisemitic abuse at a hotel in Leipzig. Details of the crime are still being investigated. But there are so many other incidents that get little to no media attention.
The grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender
Crimes against Jews are rising
Across all parts of society, antisemitism is on the rise. Until a few years ago, Jewish life was seen as an accepted part of German society. Since the attack on the synagogue in Halle in 2019, the picture has changed: it was a bitter reminder that right-wing terror against Jewish people has a long, unbroken history in Germany.
Stories have abounded about the coronavirus crisis being a Jewish conspiracy; meanwhile, Muslim antisemitism is becoming louder and more forceful. The anti-Israel boycott movement BDS rears its head in every debate on antisemitism, just as left-wing or post-colonial thinking are part of every discussion.
Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.
Since 2015, the number of antisemitic crimes recorded has risen by about a third, to 2,350. But victims only report around 20% of cases. Some choose not to because they've had bad experiences with the police, others because they're afraid of the perpetrators, and still others because they just want to put it behind them. Victims clearly hold out little hope of useful reaction from the state – so crimes go unreported.
And the reality of Jewish life in Germany is a dark one. Sociologists say that Jewish children are living out their "identity under siege." What impact does it have on them when they can only go to nursery under police protection? Or when they hear Holocaust jokes at school?
Germany needs to take its antisemitism seriously
This shows that the country of commemorative services and "stumbling blocks" placed in sidewalks as a memorial to victims of the Nazis has lost its moral compass. To make it point true north again, antisemitism needs to be documented from the perspective of those affected, making it visible to the non-Jewish population. And Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.
That is the first thing. The second is that we need to talk about specifically German forms of antisemitism. For example, the fact that in no other EU country are Jewish people so often confronted about the Israeli government's policies (according to a survey, 41% of German Jews have experienced this, while the EU average is 28%). Projecting the old antisemitism onto the state of Israel offers people a more comfortable target for their arguments.
Our society needs to have more conversations about antisemitism. The test of German democracy, as McCloy called it, starts with taking these concerns seriously and talking about them. We need to have these conversations because it affects all of us. It's about saving our democracy. Before it's too late.
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Die Welt ("The World") is a German daily founded in Hamburg in 1946, and currently owned by the Axel Springer AG company, Europe's largest publishing house. Now based in Berlin, Die Welt is sold in more than 130 countries. A Sunday edition called Welt am Sonntag has been published since 1948.
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