Juiceless And Useless, How Philippe Starck Changed Design

Post-modern design captures our cultural moment's yearning for unique and inspiring objects, even if they are of little use. The French master pours it all into his legendarily inefficient lemon juice squeezer.

Stack's (in)famous lemon squeezer, a real headscratcher
Stack's (in)famous lemon squeezer, a real headscratcher
Miguel Jurado

BUENOS AIRES Juicy Salif is a lemon squeezer made of polished aluminum, standing 29 centimeters high, and designed in the 1990s by France's Philippe Starck. It is also totally useless.

Proof of its functional failure is that the Italian firm Alessi produced a limited, gold-plated edition that would be irredeemably spoiled if anyone thought of squeezing lemon on it. Starck himself said his design wasn't meant to yield juice, but conversations.

Like so many creations by the famed designer, Juicy Salif has become an iconic piece in the world of contemporary design and earned itself a place in the New York Museum of Modern Art. It is in the slightly fuzzy category of design that borders on high art.

Starck's art is to catch the changing spirit of our time.

The very uselessness of the juicer has made the object one of the great victories known to design of form over function, destroying the cultural paradigm of a heroic generation of Modernists' belief of "form follows function." It also became a symbol of the individualist, charismatic creator loved by triumphant neoliberalism in the 1990s.

Starck himself feeds the myth of the marvelously unpredictable designer when he says he designed Juicy Salif just as he was about to squeeze lemon over fried calamari he was going to eat for lunch. It is the type of anecdote that helps give his products and byproducts a mythical quality. Twenty years after that lunch on the Amalfi coast, his napkin stained with oil and lemon, and sketches of calamari and spiders are on display in the Alessi Museum.

The 1980s brought the first crack in the sacred (and modern) relationship between form and function. At the invitation of firms like Alessi or Swid Powell in the United States, architects Michael Graves, Stanley Tigerman and Hans Hollein left their post-modern architectural work to create accessories for the home. Meanwhile, designers like Ettore Sottsass and his Austrian colleague Matteo Thun became famous names in industrial design, superseding the popular memory of giants of modernism like Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer.

Michael Graves has created one of the most popular post-modernist items, the whistling bird tea kettle, which sells more than 100,000 units a year and is considered a design landmark. Graves wanted to create a pop item with a historical reference: The kettle's spout has a bird that "sings' when the water has boiled, while the kettle itself evokes 19th-century U.S. tea and coffee services.

His creations are objects of desire.

Memory and historical references are elementary in giving objects an emotional edge. Since then, two types of design models have flourished. One is of the talented, star designer able to understand and connect empathically with the user; and the other, of the professional design team and engineering work ready to explore that connection from a more scientific standpoint.

Starck is in the first group, and feeds it with his legend. The other category includes teams like the one led by Hartmut Esslinger, Apple's hidden designer and founder of Frog Design. To create a forceful idea, the firm coined its own design mantra: that form follows emotion. If until the 1980s, design meant creating a thing or object, Frog teams worked from the different perspective of creating an experience and forging an emotional relationship between the object and its user.

That was also Starck's path, though he walks it intuitively. Certainly, his creations communicate with people at the emotional level: They are objects of desire. His art aims to catch the changing spirit of our time, which hovers between the ephemeral and superficial but yearns for transcendence.

Juicy Salif states this in simple and often ironic terms. It is the lemon squeezer that can't squeeze lemons, but that you'd choose over the latest most efficient juicer.

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In Argentina, A Visit To World's Highest Solar Energy Park

With loans and solar panels from China, the massive solar park has been opened a year and is already powering the surrounding areas. Now the Chinese supplier is pushing for an expansion.

960,000 solar panels have been installed at the Cauchari park

Silvia Naishtat

— Driving across the border with Chile into the northwest Argentine department of Susques, you may spot what looks like a black mass in the distance. Arriving at a 4,000-meter altitude in the municipality of Cauchari, what comes into view instead is an assembly of 960,000 solar panels. It is the world's highest photovoltaic (PV) park, which is also the second biggest solar energy facility in Latin America, after Mexico's Aguascalientes plant.

Spread over 800 hectares in an arid landscape, the Cauchari park has been operating for a year, and has so far turned sunshine into 315 megawatts of electricity, enough to power the local provincial capital of Jujuy through the national grid.

It has also generated some $50 million for the province, which Governor Gerardo Morales has allocated to building 239 schools.

Abundant sunshine, low temperatures

The physicist Martín Albornoz says Cauchari, which means "link to the sun," is exposed to the best solar radiation anywhere. The area has 260 days of sunshine, with no smog and relatively low temperatures, which helps keep the panels in optimal conditions.

Its construction began with a loan of more than $331 million from China's Eximbank, which allowed the purchase of panels made in Shanghai. They arrived in Buenos Aires in 2,500 containers and were later trucked a considerable distance to the site in Cauchari . This was a titanic project that required 1,200 builders and 10-ton cranes, but will save some 780,000 tons of CO2 emissions a year.

It is now run by 60 technicians. Its panels, with a 25-year guarantee, follow the sun's path and are cleaned twice a year. The plant is expected to have a service life of 40 years. Its choice of location was based on power lines traced in the 1990s to export power to Chile, now fed by the park.

Chinese engineers working in an office at the Cauchari park


Chinese want to expand

The plant belongs to the public-sector firm Jemse (Jujuy Energía y Minería), created in 2011 by the province's then governor Eduardo Fellner. Jemse's president, Felipe Albornoz, says that once Chinese credits are repaid in 20 years, Cauchari will earn the province $600 million.

The Argentine Energy ministry must now decide on the park's proposed expansion. The Chinese would pay in $200 million, which will help install 400,000 additional panels and generate enough power for the entire province of Jujuy.

The park's CEO, Guillermo Hoerth, observes that state policies are key to turning Jujuy into a green province. "We must change the production model. The world is rapidly cutting fossil fuel emissions. This is a great opportunity," Hoerth says.

The province's energy chief, Mario Pizarro, says in turn that Susques and three other provincial districts are already self-sufficient with clean energy, and three other districts would soon follow.

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