April 02, 2018
LAUSANNE — Fyodor Dostoevsky no doubt, had other things in mind when, in his famous novel The Idiot, he wrote that "beauty will save the world." And yet, a century-and-a-half later, those words have much to say about the current state of green energy technologies.
Simply put, we need energy alternatives to save our planet. But to encourage more people to embrace them, we also need to focus on aesthetics. We need to make them more beautiful, in other words. Because honestly, is anything more unseemly than a massive hydroelectric dam, or solar panels fixed awkwardly onto a roof, or rows of wind turbines breaking up the countryside? It's as if such energy alternatives have to be ugly to be taken seriously.
People already recognize the need for these technologies — to counter depleting natural resources, reduce pollution and limit global warming. Imagine, then, if renewable energy generators were easier on the eyes if besides being efficient, rational and functional, they were also aesthetically pleasing. Remember, without beauty's grace, people feel neither desire nor attachment.
Missing the mark
The problem has much to do with the age-old antagonisms between engineers and artists, meaning designers, architects or any creator of forms. Technicians and artists don't speak the same language. Nor do they have the same expectations or work at the same speed. They think differently, and so struggle to understand each other. An engineer rationalizes, quantifies and resolves problems in a precise framework. An artist looks beyond the framework, seeking forms, symbols, and meanings that are more than just functional.
It's as if such energy alternatives have to be ugly to be taken seriously.
Attempts have been made to bridge the two worlds. But so far, the results are often counterproductive. A prime example is the wind tree installed in 2016 outside a Geneva bank. Designed as an urban generator, the tree's leaves produce energy when they sway. True, it's an elegant contraption. Only it doesn't really work, at least not as a wind turbine. Its leaves turn very little, the power yield is feeble, and the French firm that created the tree went bust last year.
The glass front of the SwissTech Convention Center in Lausanne is another example. The facade is made of translucent solar panels tinted red, green and orange. Very interesting, from a visual standpoint, but again the energy the panels produce is meager. It's another case of beautiful thwarting useful.
The Swiss Solar House — Photo: Solar Decathlon
Still, there are some exceptions. One is the Swiss Solar House, which won the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Decathlon prize last October in Denver, Colorado. Like other successful attempts to combine beauty and functionality, the Swiss Solar House was the product of close collaboration, from the outset, between artists and engineers. To integrate their efforts, the two teams had to share a common vision and speak a sort of common language.
The experimental project, which involved people from several Swiss technical institutions, was headed by Marilyne Anderson of Lausanne's L"École Polytechnique Fédérale (EPFL). "Until recently the debate focused on energetic performance at the expense of aesthetics," Anderson explains. "In fact, a schism arose between those talking sustainability and those concerned with construction quality."
Artistry in motion
Green automobiles have also suffered from a beauty deficit or, more specifically, from an overly conservative design approach. Car designers are beholden to their traditions and told not to be too bold given the huge amounts of money at stake. They take their lead, in other words, from technicians and accountants.
I learned a whole lot.
But even there, things are shifting. At the recent Detroit automobile show, some designers spoke openly about aesthetics. Alfonso Albaisa, Nissan's vice-president for global design, talked about the artistry of the Xmotion — an SUV prototype with a smooth, wood-crafted cockpit — and the QX Inspiration, one of its Infiniti-line luxury models.
Karim Habib, head of design at Infiniti, mentioned that he'd studied art in Switzerland. He took sculpture, painting and architecture classes — all of which were key to his training as an industrial designer, he said. Habib recalled one particular class taught by a professor trained at the typography school in Basel. "For the first time in my life, I understood the importance of proportions, the balance between fineness and thickness," he said. "I learned a whole lot."
Nissan Xmotion concept — Photo: Nissan
Another sign of change is that art schools have begun winning automobile design contests. Last year, two students of the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow, Poland won one of the Innovation Challenge prizes awarded by the French automotive supplier Valeo. Some 5,000 students from 750 universities — most of them, technical institutions — participated in the contest.
The Krakow students designed an elegant, self-driving electric car that can function as both a passenger and delivery vehicle, and sever as a sleeping pod. They were the first Valeo winners to come from the fine arts rather than an engineering school. Given the way things are going, they may not be the last. And who knows, perhaps one day, beauty — rather than blah — will become the defining characteristic of sustainability.
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A neo-Nazi has been buried in the former grave of a Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender – not an oversight, but a deliberate provocation. This is just one more example of antisemitism on the rise in Germany, and society's inability to respond.
Eva Marie Kogel
October 24, 2021
BERLIN — If you want to check the state of your society, there's a simple test: as the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, John Jay McCloy, said in 1949, the touchstone for a democracy is the well-being of Jews. This litmus test is still relevant today. And it seems Germany would not pass.
Incidents are piling up. Most recently, groups of neo-Nazis from across the country traveled to a church near Berlin for the funeral of a well-known far-right figure. He was buried in the former grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender, a gravesite chosen deliberately by the right-wing extremists.
The incident at the cemetery
They intentionally chose a Jewish grave as an act of provocation, trying to gain maximum publicity for this act of desecration. And the cemetery authorities at the graveyard in Stahnsdorf fell for it. The church issued an immediate apology, calling it a "terrible mistake" and saying they "must immediately see whether and what we can undo."
There are so many incidents that get little to no media attention.
It's unfathomable that this burial was allowed to take place at all, but now the cemetery authorities need to make a decision quickly about how to put things right. Otherwise, the grave may well become a pilgrimage site for Holocaust deniers and antisemites.
The incident has garnered attention in the international press and it will live long in the memory. Like the case of singer-songwriter Gil Ofarim, who recently claimed he was subjected to antisemitic abuse at a hotel in Leipzig. Details of the crime are still being investigated. But there are so many other incidents that get little to no media attention.
The grave of Jewish musicologist Max Friedlaender
Crimes against Jews are rising
Across all parts of society, antisemitism is on the rise. Until a few years ago, Jewish life was seen as an accepted part of German society. Since the attack on the synagogue in Halle in 2019, the picture has changed: it was a bitter reminder that right-wing terror against Jewish people has a long, unbroken history in Germany.
Stories have abounded about the coronavirus crisis being a Jewish conspiracy; meanwhile, Muslim antisemitism is becoming louder and more forceful. The anti-Israel boycott movement BDS rears its head in every debate on antisemitism, just as left-wing or post-colonial thinking are part of every discussion.
Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.
Since 2015, the number of antisemitic crimes recorded has risen by about a third, to 2,350. But victims only report around 20% of cases. Some choose not to because they've had bad experiences with the police, others because they're afraid of the perpetrators, and still others because they just want to put it behind them. Victims clearly hold out little hope of useful reaction from the state – so crimes go unreported.
And the reality of Jewish life in Germany is a dark one. Sociologists say that Jewish children are living out their "identity under siege." What impact does it have on them when they can only go to nursery under police protection? Or when they hear Holocaust jokes at school?
Germany needs to take its antisemitism seriously
This shows that the country of commemorative services and "stumbling blocks" placed in sidewalks as a memorial to victims of the Nazis has lost its moral compass. To make it point true north again, antisemitism needs to be documented from the perspective of those affected, making it visible to the non-Jewish population. And Jewish life needs to be allowed to step out of the shadows.
That is the first thing. The second is that we need to talk about specifically German forms of antisemitism. For example, the fact that in no other EU country are Jewish people so often confronted about the Israeli government's policies (according to a survey, 41% of German Jews have experienced this, while the EU average is 28%). Projecting the old antisemitism onto the state of Israel offers people a more comfortable target for their arguments.
Our society needs to have more conversations about antisemitism. The test of German democracy, as McCloy called it, starts with taking these concerns seriously and talking about them. We need to have these conversations because it affects all of us. It's about saving our democracy. Before it's too late.
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Die Welt ("The World") is a German daily founded in Hamburg in 1946, and currently owned by the Axel Springer AG company, Europe's largest publishing house. Now based in Berlin, Die Welt is sold in more than 130 countries. A Sunday edition called Welt am Sonntag has been published since 1948.
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