Pandemic Politics Is Bad For Your Mental Health

German psychologist Stephan Grünewald has some insights on how nearly a year's worth of coronavirus restrictions are impacting people's mental health.

Lockdown state of mind
Lockdown state of mind
Hannelore Crolly

COLOGNE — It feels like life is slipping through our fingers. Every day is the same. There's no variety, nothing to look forward to, no highlights. We hardly have contact with other people, or much chance for exercise. Yes, daily life in the coronavirus pandemic is wearing people down.

A year after the first reports emerged about this unknown virus that shut down a city of over a million people in China, the German public has become strangely hardened and desensitized to it. They're also bored.

Cologne-based psychologist Stephan Grünewald calls this state "corona-corrosion." And he fears that in this psychological climate, the approaches taken by our politicians are no longer reaching people and convincing them.

"Politicians are stuck in a short-term perspective. They jump from one crisis meeting to the next, but always trying to offer people hope," he says.

The problem, Grünewald explains, is that people need to know what to expect from the future, and so what they really need from their leaders is a clear long-term strategy that addresses the difficult reality: that the coronavirus will remain part of our lives for a long time to come.

Also, the state doesn't show the same discipline that it requires from its citizens, he goes on to say. Struggling public health departments, missing software, a clumsy start to the vaccination campaign: All of that damages trust and makes people less prepared to comply with rules.

"The political narrative that tries to delude people into thinking everything will be OK as long as we stick it out is useless. It tires people out," says Grünewald, who spoke to Die Welt by telephone shortly before Chancellor Angela Merkel defended her coronavirus policies at a press conference.

During that appearance, Merkel admitted that the virus and its mutations "are here to stay." She also announced indirectly that the strict measures may last "another two, three or four weeks," even if Germany's infection rate drops to 50 new infections per 100,000 people, and perhaps even until it's under 10, because then, contact tracing will be much simpler for public health departments.

Politicians are stuck in a short-term perspective.

Some are calling for an even harsher approach, one that's been dubbed "Covid Zero" and that Grünewald considers especially dangerous. Its supporters argue for an even stricter lockdown to completely eliminate the virus. But the psychologist believes this absolute approach would be impossible to achieve in a globalized world.

"It's a fascinating idea that after a complete lockdown, everything could go back to how it was before. But it's a pipe dream that will eventually turn into a nightmare," Grünewald says.

The number of asymptomatic cases, where people are unaware they have the virus, would make it impossible to completely eradicate it. "As a psychologist, I'm always skeptical when I see a narrative that tempts people with the promise of a complete victory," he adds.

Stuck in an endless loop

Grünewald, 60, is co-founder of the Cologne-based research institute Rheingold and part of North Rhine-Westphalia state government's expert coronavirus team. Rheingold carries out in-depth interviews that are similar to therapy sessions, in order to gauge the mental state and needs of German citizens.

Their findings now are very different from what they were last year, when the pandemic first made its presence felt. During the first lockdown, at least some parts of the population were happy to be rediscovering a slower pace of life, but now this is no longer the case. In fact, Grünewald says it's the opposite: People are still expected to be highly productive in their work, and many find themselves in a "state of senseless busyness."

The study's lead researcher, Judith Behmer, found that many people are putting in overtime at work simply because they want to have something to keep them busy. "Sometimes it's simply desperation to have something to do and to feel like they're still in control," she says. And without theater visits or gym sessions, there are no excuses to leave work on time.

Mural in Berlin Mitte — Photo: Imago via ZUMA

As well as working from home, parents are once again tasked with home-schooling. And instead of being rewarded for complying with all the restrictions, harsher measures are being discussed. "People feel like they're in an endless loop, where good news such as the vaccine is quickly overshadowed by bad news such as the virus mutations," says Grünewald.

In the conversations conducted by Rheingold, many people also complained that politicians were turning the screw and introducing ever harsher measures, but at the same time not enforcing the existing restrictions or punishing people who break them.

"Seeing others break the rules makes people less disciplined and contributes to growing corona-corrosion," Grünewald adds.

People feel like they're in an endless loop.

In Munich in Bavaria — a state that has a reputation for strictness — there hasn't been a single coronavirus-related fine for months. Rigor only works if it's more than rhetoric or symbolism.

Many people have created coronavirus loopholes or gray areas in their personal lives. "Just like the shadow economy that grew up in East Germany, during the pandemic there is a kind of shadow daily life, where people allow themselves time out from coronavirus rules," says Grünewald. They let themselves hug their girlfriend or go out to enjoy the snow at the weekend.

"Many of the participants told us they simply had to. They didn't have a choice," says lead researcher Behmer.

This is especially as the fear of infection has gone down. Many people are washing their hands less often and hardly disinfecting surfaces at all. The vaccine, the first effective treatments, and the belief that only old people are seriously affected have lulled many into a false sense of security.

The researchers are also seeing new behavior when it comes to shopping. In the first lockdown, most people did a big weekly shop in an effort to go out as little as possible. Now people are going daily — and for many it is the social and sensory highlight of the day.

"The daily walk is now a collective escape and allows people to feel connected with nature and each other," says Grünewald. "Without this possibility, many people are afraid of losing their minds in lockdown."

Lead researcher Behmer is also surprised to see that many people had already written off the year 2021. "They believe we're in it for the long haul and are thinking in terms of much longer periods of time." This contrasts with the week-by-week approach taken by politicians.

Many older people, in particular, feel that the restrictions will steal the rest of their lives from them. "It's a kind of early death. There's a growing sense of melancholy," the researcher explains.

Still, she says that people are "very stoical" and are facing the restrictions with great resolve. "We don't praise people enough for how well most of them are dealing with it," Behmer says.

Keep up with the world. Break out of the bubble.
Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter!

Erdogan And Boris Johnson: A New Global Power Duo?

As Turkey fears the EU closing ranks over defense, Turkish President Erdogan is looking to Boris Johnson as a post-Brexit ally, especially as Angela Merkel steps aside. This could undermine the deal where Ankara limits refugee entry into Europe, and other dossiers too.

Johnson and Erdogan in NYC on Sept. 20

Carolina Drüten and Gregor Schwung


BERLIN — According to the Elysée Palace, the French presidency "can't understand" why Turkey would overreact, since the defense pact that France recently signed in Paris with Greece is not aimed at Ankara. The agreement covers billions of euros' worth of military equipment, and the two countries have committed to come to each other's aid if they are attacked.

Although Paris denies this, it is difficult to see the agreement as anything other than a message, perhaps even a provocation, targeted at Turkey.

Officially, the Turkish government is unruffled, saying the pact doesn't represent a military threat. But the symbolism is clear: with the U.S., UK and Australia recently announcing the Aukus security pact, Ankara fears the EU may be closing ranks when it comes to all military issues.

What will Aukus mean for NATO?

Turkey has long felt left out in the cold, at odds with the European Union over a number of issues. Yet now President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is setting his sights on another country, which also wants to become more independent from Europe: the UK.

Europe's approach to security and defense is changing dramatically. Over the past few months, while the U.S. was negotiating the Aukus pact with Britain and Australia behind the EU's back, a submarine deal between Australia and France, which would have been worth billions, was scrapped.

The EU is happy to keep Erdogan waiting

Officially, Turkey is keeping its cards close to its chest. Addressing foreign journalists in Istanbul, Erdogan's chief advisor Ibrahim Kalin said the country was not involved in Aukus, but they hope it doesn't have a negative impact on NATO. However, the agreement will have a significant effect on Turkey.

"Before Aukus, the Turks thought that the U.S. would prevent the EU from adopting a defense policy that was independent of NATO," says Sinan Ülgen, an expert on Turkey at the Brussels think tank Carnegie Europe. "Now they are afraid that Washington may make concessions for France, which could change things."

Macron sees post-Merkel power vacuum

Turkey's concerns may well prove to be justified. Outgoing German Chancellor Angela Merkel always argued for closer collaboration with Turkey, partly because it is an important trading partner and partly because it has a direct influence on the influx of migrants from Asia and the Middle East to Europe.

Merkel consistently thwarted France's plans for a stricter approach from Brussels towards Turkey, and she never supported Emmanuel Macron's ideas about greater strategic autonomy for countries within the EU.

But now she that she's leaving office, Macron is keen to make the most of the power vacuum Merkel will leave behind. The prospect of France's growing influence is "not especially good news for Turkey," says Ian Lesser, vice president of the think tank German Marshall Fund.

Ankara fears the defense pact between France and Greece could be a sign of what is to come. According to a statement from the Turkish Foreign Ministry, the agreement is aimed "at NATO member Turkey" and is damaging to the alliance. Observers also assume the agreement means that France is supporting Greece's claims to certain territories in the Mediterranean which remain disputed under international law, with Turkey's own sovereignty claims.

Paris is a close ally of Athens. In the summer of 2020, Greece and Turkey were poised on the threshold of a military conflict in the eastern Mediterranean. Since then, Athens has ordered 24 Rafale fighter jets from France, and the new pact includes a deal for France to supply them with three frigates.

Photo of French President Emmanuel Macron and Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis on September 27 in Paris

French President Emmanuel Macron and Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis on September 27 in Paris

Sadak Souici/Le Pictorium Agency/ZUMA

Erdogan’s EU wish list

It's not the first time that Ankara has felt snubbed by the EU. Since Donald Trump left the White House, Turkey has been making a considerable effort to improve relations with Brussels. "The situation in the eastern Mediterranean is peaceful and the migrant problem is under control," says Kalin. Now it is "high time" that Europe does something for Turkey.

Erdogan's wish list is extensive: making it easier for Turks to get EU visas, renegotiating the refugee deal, making more funds available to Turkey as it continues the process of joining the EU, and moderniszing the customs union. But there is no movement on any of these issues in Brussels. They're happy to keep Erdogan waiting.

Britain consistently supported Turkey's ambition to join the EU

Now he is starting to look elsewhere. At the UN summit in September, Erdogan had a meeting with British Prime Minister Boris Johnson at the recently opened Turkish House in New York. Kalin says it was a "very good meeting" and that the two countries are "closely allied strategic partners." He says they plan to work together more closely on trade, but with a particular focus on defense.

 Turkey's second largest export market

The groundwork for collaboration was already in place. Britain consistently supported Turkey's ambition to join the EU, and gave an ultimate proof of friendship after the failed coup in 2016. Unlike other European capitals, London reacted quickly, calling the coup an "attack on Turkish democracy," and its government has generally held back in its criticism of Turkey.

At the end of last year, Johnson and Erdogan signed a new free trade agreement, which will govern commerce between the two countries post-Brexit. Erdogan has called it "the most important treaty for Turkey since the customs agreement with the EU in 1995."

After Germany, Britain is Turkey's second largest export market. "Turkey now has the opportunity to build a new partnership with the United Kingdom and it must make the most of it," says economist Ali Kücükcolak from the Istanbul Commerce University.

Erdogan is well aware of this, as Turkey is in desperate need of an economic boost. Inflation currently stands at 19%, and the currency's value is consistently falling. Turks are feeling the impact on their daily lives: food and rent are becoming increasingly expensive, while salaries remain unchanged.

Keep up with the world. Break out of the bubble.
Sign up to our expressly international daily newsletter!