Geopolitics

Inside France's Secret War Against Jihadists Of Mali

French commandos are practically invisible as they carry out high-tech operations across Mali to track down Salafist fighters and other terrorists.

French forces in Bamako, Mali
Didier François

BANDIAGARA — The Twin Otter plane flies full speed over the battlefield, though low enough to almost scrape the tops of acacia trees. At one point its wingtips seem dangerously close to smashing into the jagged cliffs. But there's a reason for these maneuvers: The pilot is trying to avoid being shot.

This is Dogon Country, in south-central Mali, but the pilot is French — a "flying ace" from the Poitou territory in northwest France. He's part of a transport squadron assigned to move people and supplies for special-ops commandos, wherever and whenever, and regardless of the conditions or weather. That means arriving on time — always — and landing just about anywhere, even if all there is for a landing strip is a bit of hardened ground.

The squadron has become vital to the French commandos discreetly waging war on terrorism in the Sahel region of Africa, an expansive, rugged zone as big as Europe that stretches from Mauritania to Chad. In this massive land corridor the commandos have had to become like the French corsairs of old. They must be swifter and more resounding than the pirates they stalk. They must subject them to constant pressure, preempt their actions and confine the adversaries to their hideouts.

To this end, they're organized into search parties, moving around for weeks on end the way Britain's SAS (Special Air Service) soldiers used to harass the German Afrikakorps in World War II. Their vehicles drive off road, and at night, the commandos camp, but always on high alert. Their objective is to locate the enemy and guide French troops toward a final assault or decisive intervention to catch or neutralize a Jihadi captain, chieftain or bombmaker.

Enemy territory

The plane takes us to an advance base, permanently installed north of the Niger river, where a chopper takes us to a further point. It takes minutes to unload equipment, munitions and supplies from the helicopter and onto our 4x4 vehicles, before the chopper leaves and we head into the desert.

The first mission is to locate a nomad caravan. An information officer, Lt. Olivier, must find an old Tuareg chief able to inform him on a route regularly used by terrorists. These contacts, says Olivier, can provide information on "what will happen in the area" but are by no means the only source of data they use.

The enemies here regularly flout national borders.

Fighting terrorism requires patience and the painstaking gathering of information, which depends in turn on intensive cooperation between the Special Operations Command, or COS, as it's known; other French military services; and even outside allies, since the enemies here regularly flout national borders. Each is a component of the vast security net France cast over the Sahel some years back, when the Salafists dreamed of hoisting their black banner over Bamako, Mali's capital.

For now, troops participating in "Operation Barkhane" have checked any bid to revive a terrorist army able to defy an African state, while a second operation, code-named "Saber," roots out cells and destroys residual militants. COS uses 4,000 soldiers from four different sectors of the French military. Together they boast a versatile set of skills, including hostage liberation, surgical strikes and operations behind enemy lines. Regular French troops aid operations when necessary.

French Mirage fighter jets operate across Africa — Photo: Staff Sgt. David L. Proffitt

Agility, discretion and precaution are key to survival. Capt. Alexis, a patrol officer, concentrates on an observation point that will act as a campsite for the night. Camp is later set up amid "total blackout, no light," as per instructions. All operatives sleep in combat positions designated by Capt. Alexis, with boots on and weapons at hand. A faint buzzing indicates the guards have switched on their thermographic cameras. These detect a man's body heat hundreds of meters of away.

"We are operating in enemy territory, so when we arrive at a campsite like this, we install a 360 degree surveillance system with watch turns, so we can react if enemies should appear within a radius in which we can act," the officer explains. "In that case we would raise camp to pursue, and stop or obstruct them."

To investigate a target, observation patrols first make sure to secure their rearguards. They then approach under camouflage and in absolute silence, surveilling the objective's every move. The goal of a mission like this is precisely to discard rumors and confirm that a tip has indeed led to a valid, operational target. For that, operatives must go right to the edge of a terrorist den.

Thermal cameras register everything, which is then transferred into a secured network and dissected by analysts. Even in the middle of the desert operatives are never alone. Their vehicles have satellite dishes fixed between two machine guns and extra water supplies, allowing constant liaison with COS headquarters.

A precision drop guided by satellite, and a pleasant surprise for the morning.

This tool is a vital thread that allows top commanders to give the green light if a strategic target is found and the mission needs to continue and be supplied. As dawn approaches, after Captain Alexis has completed and sent off his report, a gentle rumble arises from the south. A C-160 transport plane flies over and parachutes a reinforced plastic container within 20 meters of the camp.

It is a precision drop guided by satellite, and a pleasant surprise for the morning. Water bottles, rations and a little extra for breakfast: croissants and raisin buns — for the corsairs of the Sahel, compliments of the flying aces of Poitou.

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Economy

Merkel's Legacy: The Rise And Stall Of The German Economy

How have 16 years of Chancellor Angela Merkel changed Germany? The Chancellor accompanied the country's rise to near economic superpower status — and then progress stalled. On technology and beyond, Germany needs real reforms under Merkel's successor.

Chancellor Angela Merkel looks at the presentation of the current 2 Euro commemorative coin ''Brandenburg''

Daniel Eckert

BERLIN — Germans are doing better than ever. By many standards, the economy broke records during the reign of outgoing Chancellor Angela Merkel: private households' financial assets have climbed to a peak; the number of jobs recorded a historic high before the pandemic hit at the beginning of 2020; the GDP — the sum of all goods and services produced in a period — also reached an all-time high.

And still, while the economic balance sheet of Merkel's 16 years is outstanding if taken at face value, on closer inspection one thing catches the eye: against the backdrop of globalization, Europe's largest economy no longer has the clout it had at the beginning of the century. Germany has fallen behind in key sectors that will shape the future of the world, and even the competitiveness of its manufacturing industries shows unmistakable signs of fatigue.

In 2004, a year before Merkel was first elected Chancellor, the British magazine The Economist branded Germany the "sick man of Europe." Ironically, the previous government, a coalition of center-left and green parties, had already laid the foundations for recovery with some reforms. Facing the threat of high unemployment, unions had held back on wage demands.

"Up until the Covid-19 crisis, Germany had achieved strong economic growth with both high and low unemployment," says Michael Holstein, chief economist at DZ Bank. However, it never made important decisions for its future.

Another economist, Jens Südekum of Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf, offers a different perspective: "Angela Merkel profited greatly from the preparatory work of her predecessor. This is particularly true regarding the extreme wage restraint practiced in Germany in the early 2000s."

Above all, Germany was helped in the first half of the Merkel era by global economic upheaval. Between the turn of the millennium and the 2011-2012 debt crisis, emerging countries, led by China, experienced unprecedented growth. With many German companies specializing in manufacturing industrial machines and systems, the rise of rapidly industrializing countries was a boon for the country's economy.

Germany dismissed Google as an over-hyped tech company.

Digital competitiveness, on the other hand, was not a big problem in 2005 when Merkel became chancellor. Google went public the year before, but was dismissed as an over-hyped tech company in Germany. Apple's iPhone was not due to hit the market until 2007, then quickly achieved cult status and ushered in a new phase of the global economy.

Germany struggled with the digital economy, partly because of the slow expansion of internet infrastructure in the country. Regulation, lengthy start-up processes and in some cases high taxation contributed to how the former economic wonderland became marginalized in some of the most innovative sectors of the 21st century.

Volkswagen's press plant in Zwickau, Germany — Photo: Jan Woitas/dpa/ZUMA

"When it comes to digitization today, Germany has a lot of catching up to do with the relevant infrastructure, such as the expansion of fiber optics, but also with digital administration," says Stefan Kooths, Director of the Economic and Growth Research Center at the Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).

For a long time now, the country has made no adjustments to its pension system to ward off the imminent demographic problems caused by an increasingly aging population. "The social security system is not future-proof," says Kooths. The most recent changes have come at the expense of future generations and taxpayers, the economist says.

Low euro exchange rates favored German exports

Nevertheless, things seemed to go well for the German economy at the start of the Merkel era. In part, this can be explained by the economic downturn caused by the euro debt crisis of 2011-2012. Unlike in the previous decade, the low euro exchange rate favored German exports and made money flow into German coffers. And since then-European Central Bank president Mario Draghi's decision to save the euro "whatever it takes" in 2012, this money has become cheaper and cheaper.

In the long run, these factors inflated the prices of real estate and other sectors but failed to contribute to the future viability of the country. "With the financial crisis and the national debt crisis that followed, economic policy got into crisis mode, and it never emerged from it again," says DZ chief economist Holstein. Policy, he explains, was geared towards countering crises and maintaining the status quo. "The goal of remaining competitive fell to the background, as did issues concerning the future."

In the traditional field of manufacturing, the situation deteriorated significantly. The Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft (IW), which regularly measures and compares the competitiveness of industries in different countries, recently concluded that German companies have lost many of the advantages they had gained. The high level of productivity, which used to be one of the country's strengths, faltered in the years before the pandemic.

Kooths, of IfW Kiel, points out that private investment in the German economy has declined in recent years, while the "government quota" in the economy, which describes the amount of government expenditure against the GDP, grew significantly during Merkel's tenure, from 43.5% in 2005 to 46.5% in 2019. Kooths concludes that: "Overall, the state's influence on economic activity has increased significantly."

Another very crucial aspect of competitiveness, at least from the point of view of skilled workers and companies, has been neglected by German politics for years: taxes and social contributions. The country has among the highest taxes on income in Europe, and corporate taxes are also hardly as high as in Germany anywhere in the industrialized world. "In the long run, high tax rates always come at the expense of economic dynamism and can even prevent new companies from being set up," warns Kooths.

Startups can renew an economy and lay the foundation for future prosperity. Between the year 2000 and the Covid-19 crisis, fewer and fewer new companies were created every year. Economists from left to right are unanimous: Angela Merkel is leaving behind a country with considerable need for reform.

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