After Saudi Arabia, Israel, Rome and Brussels, Donald Trump's week-long odyssey comes to an end with the G7 meeting in the Sicilian town of Taormina. As has become a habit with such events, the picturesque location was turned into a bunker for the occasion, in anticipation of the protests that are also an annual feature.
It was 16 years ago in another Italian coastal location that the most violent demonstrations erupted, leading to the fatal shooting of 23-year-old protester Carlo Giuliani by police at the Genoa G8 (it was Eight before Russia was forced out in 2014 after its annexation of Crimea). Back in July 2001, the so-called "No Global" protesters were lashing out against the idea that a small group of powerful leaders could meet to mold the world as they sought fit. Less than three months later, the 9/11 attacks proved everyone wrong.
Now, these meetings seem more like annual emergency summits, amid rolling crises of economics and violence. Already high on the agenda, the issue of security took on a new immediacy after Monday night's deadly terror attack in Manchester that targeted teenagers at a pop concert. The two other topics expected to dominate discussion are climate and trade, both of which suddenly enjoy far less consensus than even just one year ago.
And yes, the uninvited guest that haunts Taormina: Vladimir Putin's Russia.
Taormina is located just south of the Strait of Messina, believed to have inspired the Greek legend of the two sea monsters Scylla and Charybdis that Homer included in his Odyssey epic, and gives us the expression of having to choose between two bad options, a "rock and a hard place," or as we say in French "plague and cholera."
Though Trump has only been away for eight days, he too has gotten an introduction to the many bad choices the world offers today. And when he returns home, at least two other hot potatoes (or rotten tomatoes?) await: the investigation into the leaking of sensitive information (this time not from him) to the U.S. press about the Manchester attack, and the FBI's expanding Russia investigation that now is reportedly focused on his own son-in-law and special advisor Jared Kushner.
And yes, the uninvited guest that haunts Taormina: Vladimir Putin's Russia. What role the Kremlin plays in Trump's own version of Homer's tale is yet unclear. But if Odysseus' fate is any indication, the only way to sail away alive from Scylla and Charybdis is to sacrifice part of the crew to the former. A lesson worth pondering as Air Force One heads back to Washington.
Once meant to protect the royal family, the century-old law has become a tool for the military-led government in Bangkok to stamp out all dissent. A new report outlines the abuses.
"We need to reform the institution of the monarchy in Thailand. It is the root of the problem." Those words, from Thai student activist Juthatip Sirikan, are a clear expression of the growing youth-led movement that is challenging the legitimacy of the government and demanding deep political changes in the Southeast Asian nation. Yet those very same words could also send Sirikan to jail.
Thailand's Criminal Code 'Lèse-Majesté' Article 112 imposes jail terms for defaming, insulting, or threatening the monarchy, with sentences of three to 15 years. This law has been present in Thai politics since 1908, though applied sparingly, only when direct verbal or written attacks against members of the royal family.
But after the May 2014 military coup d'état, Thailand experienced the first wave of lèse-majesté arrests, prosecutions, and detentions of at least 127 individuals arrested in a much wider interpretation of the law.
The recent report 'Second Wave: The Return of Lèse-Majesté in Thailand', documents how the Thai government has "used and abused Article 112 of the Criminal Code to target pro-democracy activists and protesters in relation to their online political expression and participation in peaceful pro-democracy demonstrations."
Criticism of any 'royal project'
The investigation shows 124 individuals, including at least eight minors, have been charged with lèse-majesté between November 2020 and August 2021. Nineteen of them served jail time. The new wave of charges is cited as a response to the rising pro-democracy protests across Thailand over the past year.
Juthatip Sirikan explains that the law is now being applied in such a broad way that people are not allowed to question government budgets and expenditure if they have any relationship with the royal family, which stifles criticism of the most basic government decision-making since there are an estimated 5,000 ongoing "royal" projects. "Article 112 of lèse-majesté could be the key (factor) in Thailand's political problems" the young activist argues.
In 2020 the Move Forward opposition party questioned royal spending paid by government departments, including nearly 3 billion baht (89,874,174 USD) from the Defense Ministry and Thai police for royal security, and 7 billion baht budgeted for royal development projects, as well as 38 planes and helicopters for the monarchy. Previously, on June 16, 2018, it was revealed that Thailand's Crown Property Bureau transferred its entire portfolio to the new King Maha Vajiralongkorn.
Protestors In Bangkok Call For Political Prisoner Release
Freedom of speech at stake
"Article 112 shuts down all freedom of speech in this country", says Sirikan. "Even the political parties fear to touch the subject, so it blocks most things. This country cannot move anywhere if we still have this law."
The student activist herself was charged with lèse-majesté in September 2020, after simply citing a list of public documents that refer to royal family expenditure. Sirikan comes from a family that has faced the consequences of decades of political repression. Her grandfather, Tiang Sirikhan was a journalist and politician who openly protested against Thailand's involvement in World War II. He was accused of being a Communist and abducted in 1952. According to Sirikhan's family, he was killed by the state.
The new report was conducted by The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), Thai Lawyer for Human Rights (TLHR), and Internet Law Reform Dialogue (iLaw). It accuses Thai authorities of an increasingly broad interpretation of Article 112, to the point of "absurdity," including charges against people for criticizing the government's COVID-19 vaccine management, wearing crop tops, insulting the previous monarch, or quoting a United Nations statement about Article 112.
Juthatip Sirikan speaks in front of democracy monument.
Shift to social media
While in the past the Article was only used against people who spoke about the royals, it's now being used as an alibi for more general political repression — which has also spurred more open campaigning to abolish it. Sirikan recounts recent cases of police charging people for spreading paint near the picture of the king during a protest, or even just for having a picture of the king as phone wallpaper.
The more than a century-old law is now largely playing out online, where much of today's protest takes place in Thailand. Sirikan says people are willing to go further on social media to expose information such as how the king intervenes in politics and the monarchy's accumulation of wealth, information the mainstream media rarely reports on them.
Not surprisingly, however, social media is heavily monitored and the military is involved in Intelligence operations and cyber attacks against human rights defenders and critics of any kind. In October 2020, Twitter took down 926 accounts, linked to the army and the government, which promoted themselves and attacked political opposition, and this June, Google removed two Maps with pictures, names, and addresses, of more than 400 people who were accused of insulting the Thai monarchy. "They are trying to control the internet as well," Sirikan says. "They are trying to censor every content that they find a threat".
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