LE MONDE

Why A Sense Of Smell Is Crucial For Male Sexual Conquest

A new study offers fascinating evidence that men who have no sense of smell have serious difficulty finding partners. For women, there is no such clear correlation.

The nose knows
The nose knows
Pierre Barthélémy

PARIS - For people with anosmia, success does not have a sweet smell, nor does anything else.

Anosmia is the complete or partial loss of olfaction – or put another way, people with anosmia cannot smell anything. In everyday life, those who suffer from this disease are more often than others victims of domestic accidents, because they are not able to smell gas leaks; or the burnt smell that would have told them their house or building was going up in flames; or weren’t able to identify a dangerous product (ammonia, bleach, etc.) or spoiled food.

They are not able to appreciate food in all its dimensions, since – with taste – smell makes up a big part of the pleasures of the table. But in addition to pleasures of the table, there are those of the flesh.

The February issue of the journal Biological Psychology includes a German study that questions whether or not anosmia affects sexual life. The question may seem silly if we consider that humans have stopped smelling each other’s derrieres for a long time. But this is not to say that smell has no role in social relations – in fact this sense could be a means of communication, discrete or unsuspected, for Homosapiens.

“Less explorative”

The authors of this study recruited 32 people suffering from isolated congenital anosmia and 36 age-matched healthy controls. The subjects were given a focus questionnaire on daily events related to olfaction: meals, domestic accidents, personal hygiene, and sexual history. A second questionnaire tried to uncover signs of depression. Surprisingly, researchers found that anosmic men had five times fewer sexual partners than men with a full sense of smell.

The researchers found that anosmics were more socially awkward because of their handicap: they worry about their body odor, avoid eating with others, and have a hard time assessing others. Thus anosmic men “exhibit much less explorative sexual behavior,” according to the study. In other words, when they aren’t able to smell, men aren’t good at seeking out new partners – not because smells help them, but because not smelling makes them feel less secure.

With women, it’s totally different. Their number of sexual partners does not change, even if they cannot smell men. We know that the male body odor is normally an important factor in a woman’s choice of partner, because she uses it to detect clues about a man’s health. However, the study shows that for anosmic women living with a partner, they are much less secure about their partner than a “smelling” woman.

From an evolutionary point of view, it is precisely this security that a woman looks for in a man. Without smell, she cannot be sure she has made the right choice, the one with whom she will be willing to invest maternity and children’s education, in energy and time (first, nine months, then twenty-five). And she will never know when he reeks of alcohol -- or carrys the whiff of another woman's perfume.

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Geopolitics

How Thailand's Lèse-Majesté Law Is Used To Stifle All Protest

Once meant to protect the royal family, the century-old law has become a tool for the military-led government in Bangkok to stamp out all dissent. A new report outlines the abuses.

Pro-Democracy protest at The Criminal Court in Bangkok, Thailand

"We need to reform the institution of the monarchy in Thailand. It is the root of the problem." Those words, from Thai student activist Juthatip Sirikan, are a clear expression of the growing youth-led movement that is challenging the legitimacy of the government and demanding deep political changes in the Southeast Asian nation. Yet those very same words could also send Sirikan to jail.

Thailand's Criminal Code 'Lèse-Majesté' Article 112 imposes jail terms for defaming, insulting, or threatening the monarchy, with sentences of three to 15 years. This law has been present in Thai politics since 1908, though applied sparingly, only when direct verbal or written attacks against members of the royal family.


But after the May 2014 military coup d'état, Thailand experienced the first wave of lèse-majesté arrests, prosecutions, and detentions of at least 127 individuals arrested in a much wider interpretation of the law.

The recent report 'Second Wave: The Return of Lèse-Majesté in Thailand', documents how the Thai government has "used and abused Article 112 of the Criminal Code to target pro-democracy activists and protesters in relation to their online political expression and participation in peaceful pro-democracy demonstrations."

Criticism of any 'royal project'

The investigation shows 124 individuals, including at least eight minors, have been charged with lèse-majesté between November 2020 and August 2021. Nineteen of them served jail time. The new wave of charges is cited as a response to the rising pro-democracy protests across Thailand over the past year.

Juthatip Sirikan explains that the law is now being applied in such a broad way that people are not allowed to question government budgets and expenditure if they have any relationship with the royal family, which stifles criticism of the most basic government decision-making since there are an estimated 5,000 ongoing "royal" projects. "Article 112 of lèse-majesté could be the key (factor) in Thailand's political problems" the young activist argues.

In 2020 the Move Forward opposition party questioned royal spending paid by government departments, including nearly 3 billion baht (89,874,174 USD) from the Defense Ministry and Thai police for royal security, and 7 billion baht budgeted for royal development projects, as well as 38 planes and helicopters for the monarchy. Previously, on June 16, 2018, it was revealed that Thailand's Crown Property Bureau transferred its entire portfolio to the new King Maha Vajiralongkorn.

photo of graffiti of 112 crossed out on sidewalk

Protestors In Bangkok Call For Political Prisoner Release

Peerapon Boonyakiat/SOPA Images via ZUMA Wire

Freedom of speech at stake

"Article 112 shuts down all freedom of speech in this country", says Sirikan. "Even the political parties fear to touch the subject, so it blocks most things. This country cannot move anywhere if we still have this law."

The student activist herself was charged with lèse-majesté in September 2020, after simply citing a list of public documents that refer to royal family expenditure. Sirikan comes from a family that has faced the consequences of decades of political repression. Her grandfather, Tiang Sirikhan was a journalist and politician who openly protested against Thailand's involvement in World War II. He was accused of being a Communist and abducted in 1952. According to Sirikhan's family, he was killed by the state.

The new report was conducted by The International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH), Thai Lawyer for Human Rights (TLHR), and Internet Law Reform Dialogue (iLaw). It accuses Thai authorities of an increasingly broad interpretation of Article 112, to the point of "absurdity," including charges against people for criticizing the government's COVID-19 vaccine management, wearing crop tops, insulting the previous monarch, or quoting a United Nations statement about Article 112.

Activist in front of democracy monument in Thailand.

Shift to social media

While in the past the Article was only used against people who spoke about the royals, it's now being used as an alibi for more general political repression — which has also spurred more open campaigning to abolish it. Sirikan recounts recent cases of police charging people for spreading paint near the picture of the king during a protest, or even just for having a picture of the king as phone wallpaper.

The more than a century-old law is now largely playing out online, where much of today's protest takes place in Thailand. Sirikan says people are willing to go further on social media to expose information such as how the king intervenes in politics and the monarchy's accumulation of wealth, information the mainstream media rarely reports on them.

Not surprisingly, however, social media is heavily monitored and the military is involved in Intelligence operations and cyber attacks against human rights defenders and critics of any kind. In October 2020, Twitter took down 926 accounts, linked to the army and the government, which promoted themselves and attacked political opposition, and this June, Google removed two Maps with pictures, names, and addresses, of more than 400 people who were accused of insulting the Thai monarchy. "They are trying to control the internet as well," Sirikan says. "They are trying to censor every content that they find a threat".

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