CAIRO- The khatba has made a comeback in the last few years. A modern and polished version of the modestly dressed middle-aged matchmaker from the movies who visits families with a collection of pictures of prospective brides and grooms, a few Cairo women are looking once again to facilitate marriages and help people find their significant others.
The image of the picture-peddling woman and the worried mother seeking an obedient wife for her celibate son is one that’s familiar to fans of old Egyptian movies. Although more familiar from the glorious 1940s to the mid-1960s, such an image is not far removed from the reality of today. Then, the practice wasn’t as common among wealthier, upper-class families where young women mingled with their gentlemen counterparts in schools, sporting clubs, parties or on hunting trips. The chance of finding a spouse for them was much higher. It was young women from middle class families who were rarely seen outside the house, as school and work were not an option. This reduced their chances of finding a suitor, which called for the emergence of a matchmaker or khatba.
The role of the khatba continues today but is often masked in the guise of a friendly aunt, loving relative or close friend. And today, with the advent of Facebook, there is no need for the photographs.
“I remember once I had to alter my privacy settings to give a potential suitor the chance to see my profile picture,” says Amina, a young woman in her thirties.
“They all want a beautiful, intelligent and white-skinned young woman,” says Laila Abou Wafia, also known as ‘Loula,’ who counts herself among high society’s successful matchmakers. “These are the majority of requests I get from suitors.”
Abou Wafia has been a matchmaker for 10 years. Her vocation began when she started looking for suitable suitors for her young nieces.
The journey usually starts with a phone call from the mother of the groom or the bride.
“Sometime potential suitors make the phone call,” she admits, “I have been working with a picky 39-year-old pilot who has been looking for 15 years for a fair bride who is not more than 24 years old.
“He is still looking,” adds the 70-year-old matchmaker, who has been behind hundreds of marriages among wealthy Egyptians. “Some of the marriages fail, of course,” adds the mother-of-four, “but families rarely consider it my fault.”
Abou Wafia does the primary research and matches the couples according to the requests placed by the groom or his mother. Once pictures have been approved and the khatba has done her magic, the couple-to-be are scheduled to meet. A full investigation is usually carried out by the families after the first meeting arranged by Abou Wafia.
“The first meeting should usually last around 45 minutes,” says Rania Nasser, a khatba client. “Thirty minutes is too short to get to know the person, while an hour is too long and may send the wrong message to the potential partner.”
“I rarely attend the first rendezvous unless I am asked to, to ease the tension,” explains Abou Wafia. “I can suggest more than one bride if necessary. Young women want to get married and mothers want to rest assured that their children are happy and safely hitched.”
If Abou Wafia hears negative feedback about the groom or bride-to-be, she automatically informs the other party and ends the arrangement.
“I like seeing people happy,” says the matchmaker.
For those without a khatba in their midst, matchmakers can be found online. “The Joy of Life” is an online matchmaking service launched last year by onislam.net. According to the religious website, the service aims to help young men and women choose the right partner. The service also teaches subscribers about marriage and the responsibility it entails, guiding couples through the period between the engagement and the wedding. The service is run by a number of sociologists and marriage experts, including sociologist Neamat Awadallah.
The service is not free, and, unlike dating websites, is rather structured. Users must fill out an application online, and then meet with the website to verify the information. Later, a sociologist or marriage expert will provide guidance and recommendations.
“We offer insight and we present recommendations,” says Awadallah. Candidates fill out a lengthy and detailed application and then are contacted by a specialist from the project to set up an interview. “The main obstacle of marriage in our society is simply that good people cannot find each other.”
But Abou Wafia remains optimistic about love and her role in bringing happiness. “I just came back from Italy; I visited Verona and saw Juliet’s balcony,” she says. “It was very romantic.”
Crunching the numbers of South Korea's personal and household debt offers a glimpse into what drives the win-or-die plot of the Netflix hit produced in the Asian country.
SEOUL — The South Korean series Squid Game has become the most viewed series on Netflix, watched by over 111 million viewers and counting. It has also generated a wave of debate online and off about its provocative message about contemporary life.
The plot follows the story of a desperate man in debt, who receives a mysterious invitation to play a game in which the contestants gamble their lives on six childhood games, with the winner awarded a prize of 45.6 billion won ($38 million)... while the losers face death.
It's a plot that many have noted is not quite as surreal as it sounds, a reflection of the reality of Korean society today mired in personal debt.
Seoul housing prices top London and New York
In the polished streets of downtown Seoul, one sees endless cards and coupons advertising loans scattered on the ground. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, as the demand for loans in South Korea has exploded, lax lending policies have led to a rapid increase in personal debt.
According to the South Korean Central Bank's "Monetary Credit Policy Report," household debt reached 105% of GDP in the first quarter of this year, equivalent to approximately $1.5 trillion at the end of March, with a major share tied up in home mortgages.
Average home loans are equivalent to 270% of annual income.
One reason behind the debts is the soaring housing prices. In Seoul, home to nearly half of the country's population, housing prices are now among the highest in the world. The price to income ratio (PIR), which weighs the average price of a home to the average annual household income, is 12.04 in Seoul, compared to 8.4 in San Francisco, 8.2 in London and 5.4 in New York.
According to the Korea Real Estate Commission, 42.1% of all home purchases in January 2021 were by young Koreans in their 20s and 30s. For those in their 30s, the average amount borrowed is equivalent to 270% of their annual income.
Playing the stock market
At the same time, the South Korean stock market is booming. The increased demand to buy stocks has led to an increase in other loans such as credit. The ratio for Korean shareholders conducting credit financing, i.e. borrowing from securities companies to secure stock holdings, had reached 21.4 trillion won ($17.7 billion), further increasing the indebtedness of households.
A 30-year-old Seoul office worker who bought stocks through various forms of borrowing was interviewed by Reuters this year, and said he was "very foolish not to take advantage of the rebound."
In addition to his 100 million won ($84,000) overdraft account, he also took out a 100 million won loan against his house in Seoul, and a 50 million won stock pledge. All of these demands on the stock market have further exacerbated the problem of household debt.
42.1% of all home purchases in January 2021 were by young Koreans in their 20s and 30s
Game of survival
In response to the accumulating financial risks, the Bank of Korea has restricted the release of loans and has announced its first interest rate hike in three years at the end of August.
But experts believe that even if banks cut loans or raise interest rates, those who need money will look for other ways to borrow, often turning to more costly institutions and mechanisms.
This all risks leading to what one can call a "debt trap," one loan piling on top of another. That brings us back to the plot of Squid Game, "Either you live or I do." South Korean society has turned into a game of survival.
- Death & Debt: More French Heirs Renounce Succession Of ... ›
- The Ancient Art Of Debt Relief, A Brief History - Worldcrunch ›
- South Korea Owes Iran Billions But Won't Cough Up The Cash ... ›