PARIS — Are there pictures? Nowadays, in almost every criminal inquiry, this is the first thing judges and prosecutors ask. "We can't work without these tools," says Elisabeth Sellos-Cartel, video-protection officer in the Interior Ministry's security cooperation delegation.
"Big Brother is watching you" is no longer a concept of much concern, it seems, to authorities in France, where over 6,000 towns and cities — 15 times more than in 2006 — have decided to install surveillance cameras. And in nearly half of those cases, the state helped pay for it, according to the Interior Ministry.
Topping the list is the southern city of Nice, which has 2,145 cameras on public roads (plus 170 in tramway trains) for a population of 344,000. The country's other major cities — including Paris, Lyon, and Marseille — have their share of cameras too.
The turning point was the so-called "video protection plan" that then-President Nicolas Sarkozy (2007-2012) launched in 2008 together with an inter-ministerial fund to help finance camera installation. France's mayors were sold.
Cameras are there to prevent crime rather than crack down on it.
Since then, there's been a subtle change in terminology as well: from video-surveillance to video-protection. The idea, explains Aloïs Ramel, a lawyer at Seban & Associates, "is that the cameras are there to prevent crime rather than crack down on it."
Their use was also extended to monitoring traffic violations. And in the wake of terrorist attacks and other public disturbances, there's a growing overall preference towards the cameras, according to Juan Companie, head of security with the Association of French Mayors.
Backers tend to all use similar arguments, saying cameras help combat common crimes such as drug trafficking, muggings and pick-pocketing by dissuading would-be criminals. Video recordings also accelerate police processing time and optimize their response. In short, they help solve cases.
As such, support for their use transcends political divisions. In Firminy (17,000 inhabitants), Mayor Marc Petit, a leftist who was initially reluctant to install cameras, changed his tune after troublemakers from the rough suburbs of Lyon sparked an outbreak of violence in the summer of 2009. Other communities in the area followed Petit's lead, including places led by members of the Communist Party.
"The cameras don't solve everything," he says. "But they're needed, especially after Nicolas Sarkozy reduced the size of the national police force. Not investing in them would play right into the hands of the far-right National Front."
Still, there are limits in France on how far authorities are willing to venture along the surveillance path. "The law prohibits the storing of data on people's faces or license plates," says Axel Garcia of Bosch, the world's leading manufacturer of electronic security devices.
In other words, the country doesn't allow the use of facial recognition technology, which is now commonplace in China and is also making inroads in Great Britain and the United States. In Orlando, Florida, following the Pulse nightclub massacre in 2016 — the deadliest terrorist attack on U.S. soil since 9-11 — Amazon signed a deal with local police to install its Rekognition program in a third of the city's surveillance cameras.
Parisians in the Luxembourg Gardens — Photo: Jirka Matousek
Some people in France think it's a mistake to forgo facial recognition technology. "After the shooting in Strasbourg on Dec. 16, 2018, we lost trace of Cherif Chekatt (the alleged shooter) for 48 hours. A higher-performing technology might have allowed us to locate him sooner," says Dominique Legrand, president of a national association of video-protection manufacturers.
All of those cameras in Nice weren't able to stop the attack.
But others argue that France has gone too far even without the use of facial recognition technology. Brest, on the Atlantic coast, continues to resist the use of surveillance cameras. It doesn't have a municipal police force either. And in the town of Pordic (6,700 inhabitants), two hours east, some 150 people demonstrated last year against plans to make the city "all safe" with cameras and armed police.
"Anti-camera" activists say that cameras undermine people's individual liberties. They also question their effectiveness and point to the high costs involved: between 8,000 and 15,000 euros per camera, plus maintenance fees and salaries for agents tasked with watching the videos.
Laurent Mucchielli, a research director with CNRS (France's National Center of Scientific Research) and author of a study called Vous êtes filmés! Enquête sur le bluff de la vidéosurveillance ("You're on camera! An investigation into the lies of video-surveillance"), agrees that cameras are not nearly as effective as they're made out to be. Mucchielli found that video footage helps solve only about 3% of criminal cases.
Nor are they proven to necessarily prevent crimes. As the Human Rights League points out, "All of those cameras in Nice weren't able to stop the murderous attack on July 14, 2016," when a man deliberately drove a 19-ton cargo truck through crowds of people, killing 86 and injuring more than 450 others.
With Halloween arriving, we have dug up the would-be ghosts of documented evil and bloodshed from the past.
When Hallows Eve was first introduced as a Celtic festival some 2,000 years ago, bonfires and costumes were seen as a legitimate way to ward off ghosts and evil spirits. Today of course, with science and logic being real ghostbusters, spine-chilling tales of haunted forests, abandoned asylums and deserted graveyards have rather become a way to add some mystery and suspense to our lives.
And yet there are still spooky places around the world that have something more than legend attached to them. From Spain to Uzbekistan and Australia, these locations prove that haunting lore is sometimes rooted in very real, and often terrible events.
Shahr-e Gholghola, City of Screams - Afghanistan
The ruins of Shahr-e Gholghola, the City of Screams, in Afghanistan
According to locals, ghosts from this ancient royal citadel located in the Valley of Bamyan, 150 miles northwest of Kabul, have been screaming for 800 years. You can hear them from miles away, at twilight, when they relive their massacre.
In the spring 1221, the fortress built by Buddhist Ghorids in the 6th century became the theater of the final battle between Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire, and the Mongol Horde led by Genghis Khan. It is said that Khan's beloved grandson, Mutakhan, had been killed on his mission to sack Bamyan. To avenge him, the Mongol leader went himself and ordered to kill every living creature in the city, children included.
The ruins today bear the name of Shahr-e Gholghola, meaning City of Screams or City of Sorrows. The archeological site, rich in Afghan history, is open to the public and though its remaining walls stay quiet during the day, locals say that the night brings the echoes of fear and agony. Others claim the place comes back to life eight centuries ago, and one can hear the bustle of the city and people calling each other.
Gettysburg, Civil War battlefield - U.S.
View of the battlefields from Little Round Top, Gettysburg, PA, USA
Even ghosts non-believers agree there is something eerie about Gettysbury. The city in the state of Pennsylvania is now one of the most popular destinations in the U.S. for spirits and paranormal activities sight-seeing; and many visitors report they witness exactly what they came for: sounds of drums and gunshots, spooky encounters and camera malfunctions in one specific spot… just to name a few!
The Battle of Gettysburg, for which President Abraham Lincoln wrote his best known public address, is considered a turning point in the Civil War that led to the Union's victory. It lasted three days, from July 1st to July 3rd, 1863, but it accounts for the worst casualties of the entire conflict, with 23,000 on the Union side (3,100 men killed) and 28,000 for the Confederates (including 3,900 deaths). Thousands of soldiers were buried on the battlefield in mass graves - without proper rites, legend says - before being relocated to the National Military Park Cemetery for the Unionists.
Since then, legend has it, their restless souls wander, unaware the war has ended. You can find them everywhere, on the battlefield or in the town's preserved Inns and hotels turned into field hospitals back then.
Belchite, Civil War massacre - Spain
Old Belchite, Spain
Shy lost souls wandering and briefly appearing in front of visitors, unexplainable forces attracting some to specific places of the town, recorded noises of planes, gunshots and bombs, like forever echoes of a drama which left an open wound in Spanish history…
That wound, still unhealed, is the Spanish Civil War; and at its height in 1937, Belchite village, located in the Zaragoza Province in the northeast of Spain, represented a strategic objective of the Republican forces to take over the nearby capital city of Zaragoza.
Instead of being a simple step in their operation, it became the field of an intense battle opposing the loyalist army and that of General Francisco Franco's. Between August 24 and September 6, more than 5,000 people were killed, including half of Belchite's population. The town was left in rubble. As a way to illustrate the Republicans' violence, Franco decided to leave the old town in ruins and build a new Belchite nearby. All the survivors were relocated there, but they had to wait 15 years for it to be complete.
If nothing particular happens in new Belchite, home to around 1,500 residents, the remains of old Belchite offer their share of chilling ghost stories. Some visitors say they felt a presence, someone watching them, sudden change of temperatures and strange sounds. The ruins of the old village have been used as a film set for Terry Gilliam's The Adventures of Baron Munchausen - with the crew reporting the apparition of two women dressed in period costumes - and Guillermo del Toro's Pan's Labyrinth. And in October 1986, members of the television program "Cuarta Dimensión" (the 4th dimension) spent a night in Belchite and came back with some spooky recordings of war sounds.
Gur Emir, a conquerer’s mausoleum - Uzbekistan
Gur Emir (Tomb of Timur) in Samarkand, Uzbekistan
The news echoed through the streets and bazaars of Samarkand: "The Russian expedition will open the tomb of Tamerlane the Great. It will be our curse!" It was June 1941, and a small team of Soviet researchers began excavations in the Gur-Emir mausoleum in southeastern Uzbekistan.
The aim was to prove that the remains in the tomb did in fact belong to Tamerlane — the infamous 14th-century conqueror and first ruler of the Timurid dynasty who some historians say massacred 1% of the world's population in 1360.
Still, on June 20, despite protests from local residents and Muslim clergy, Tamerlame's tomb was cracked open — marked with the inscription: "When I Rise From the Dead, The World Shall Tremble."
Only two days later, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, with the people of Samarkand linking it to the disturbing of Tamerlane's peace. Amid local protests, the excavation was immediately wrapped up and the remains of the Turkish/Mongol conqueror were sent to Moscow. The turning point in the war came with the victory in the Battle of Stalingrad — only a month after a superstitious Stalin ordered the return of Tamerlane's remains to Samarkand where the former emperor was re-buried with full honors.
Gamla Stan, a royal massacre - Sweden
The red house of Gamla Stan, Stockholm, Sweden
After Danish King Kristian II successfully invaded Sweden and was anointed King in November 1520, the new ruler called Swedish leaders to join for festivities at the royal palace in Stockholm. At dusk, after three days of wine, beer and spectacles, Danish soldiers carrying lanterns and torches entered the great hall and imprisoned the gathered nobles who were considered potential opponents of the Danish king. In the days that followed, 92 people were swiftly sentenced to death, and either hanged or beheaded on Stortorget, the main square in Gamla Stan (Old Town).
Until this day, the Stockholm Bloodbath is considered one of the most brutal events in Scandinavian history, and some people have reported visions of blood flowing across the cobblestoned square in early November. A little over a century later, a red house on the square was rebuilt as a monument for the executed — fitted with 92 white stones for each slain man. Legend has it that should one of the stones be removed, the ghost of the represented will rise from the dead and haunt the streets of Stockholm for all eternity.
Port Arthur, gruesome prison - Australia
Port Arthur Prison Settlement, Tasmania, Australia
During its 47-year history as a penal settlement, Port Arthur in southern Tasmania earned a reputation as one of the most notorious prisons in the British Empire. The institution — known for a brutal slavery system and punishment of the most hardened criminals sent from the motherland— claimed the lives of more than 1,000 inmates until its closure in 1877.
Since then, documented stories have spanned the paranormal gamut: poltergeist prisoners terrorizing visitors, weeping children roaming the port and tourists running into a weeping 'lady in blue' (apparently the spirit of a woman who died in childbirth). The museum even has an 'incidence form' ready for anyone wanting to report an otherworldly event.
Poveglia Island, plague victims - Italy
Poveglia Island, Italy
Located off the coast of Venice and Lido, Poveglia sadly reunites all the classical elements of a horror movie: plagues, mass burial ground and mental institute (from the 1920's).
During the bubonic plague and other subsequent pandemics, the island served as a quarantine station for the sick and anyone showing any signs of what could be Black Death contamination. Some 160,000 victims are thought to have died there and the seven acres of land became a mass burial ground so full that it is said that human ash makes up more than 50% of Poveglia's soil.
In 1922 a retirement home for the elderly — used as a clandestine mental institution— opened on the island and with it a fair amount of rumors involving torture of patients. The hospital and consequently the whole island was closed in 1968, leaving all the dead trapped off-land.
Poveglia's terrifying past earned it the nickname of 'Island of Ghosts'. Despite being strictly off-limits to visitors, the site has been attracting paranormal activity hunters looking for the apparition of lost and angry souls. The island would be so evil that some locals say that when an evil person dies, he wakes up in Poveglia, another kind of hell.
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