Reaching Immortality, But Would We Even Want That?

The promise of eternal life gets a boost from the latest technologies, but there are troubling questions that go beyond science.

Forever young
Forever young
Alyssa Garcia

GENEVA — Can man become immortal in a decade? Ray Kurzweil, the director of engineering at Google, is familiar with this subject. He has written books on health, artificial intelligence and futurology.

Kurzweil's theory on immortality is based on the exponential development of technologies, which have been growing more and more efficient, more and more rapidly. Kurzweil believes that biotechnology will transform health in the near future. He thinks that medicine will use "nanorobots' to complement the work of the human immune system by the year 2020. These tiny machines would be able to modify each human gene so it would not age or allow illness in the body. Kurzweil has theorized that, by 2030, medical technology would allow people to add an extra year of life each year to their life.

Are these predictions realistic? "Genetics and biotechnology are not the same thing," says Denis Duboule, a professor at the Ecole Polytechnique de Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and at the University of Geneva. "In his development, Kurzweil mentions 23,000 small programs adapted to 23,000 genes. There is only one program, DNA. One cannot treat genes individually. DNA is a whole."

Francesco Stellacci, a specialist in biomaterial and nanoparticles and a professor at EPFL, says it's not so simple to change a gene. "I think he's extremely optimistic about the time it would take."

"It would not be impossible to operate on someone, to correct a malformation in order to live longer. This will take a hundred years," Stellacci says.

Duboule, the EPFL professor, says Kurzweil's theory on immortality raises serious questions. "At what age would you stop the aging? And then, what kind of population would we want to be left with? The (corporate) executives, the old people who shout in the train?"

Duboule says that in order to be immortal, it would be necessary to change the fundamental laws of human genetics. That's the problem with people who view the human body like a car, he says. "But when you've changed all the pieces, your car is no longer your car."

Our fear of dying

François Dermange, an ethics professor at the theology department at University of Geneva, says Kurzweil's vision of immortality reflects a culture of hyper-individualism, that is to say, "I am such a great person that I deserve to live infinitely," Dermange says.

"But the proposed treatment probably has a significant cost, allowing only an affluent person to be immortal. Why is this person more deserving of an eternal life?" Dermange asks.

The professor also puts forth another negative aspect of this desire to "live infinitely in a finite world" — the resources on Earth will not be available forever. "Fortunately, we die," he says. "The human species is too invasive, take for example climate change."

François-Xavier Putallaz, a philosophy professor at the theology department at University of Fribourg, says there are ways to live on infinitely besides transforming your genes. "There are other ways of never dying, notably through material achievements. For example, having children, creating works of art, having success. In this way, something from our life continues after our disappearance."

Why is the fear of death an obsession in man since the dawn of time? "Because we are not made to die but to live," says Putallaz. "We are so attached to our existence that we don't believe in our own death. We know that it exists because we see it and we know that man, therefore himself, is mortal."

Dermange, the ethics professor, says this impulse comes from our need for perfectionism. "It's difficult to accept aging, to no longer be attractive or intelligent. Life is a long process of degeneration. Having trouble accepting that we are mortal is universal."

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In Argentina, A Visit To World's Highest Solar Energy Park

With loans and solar panels from China, the massive solar park has been opened a year and is already powering the surrounding areas. Now the Chinese supplier is pushing for an expansion.

960,000 solar panels have been installed at the Cauchari park

Silvia Naishtat

CAUCHARI — Driving across the border with Chile into the northwest Argentine department of Susques, you may spot what looks like a black mass in the distance. Arriving at a 4,000-meter altitude in the municipality of Cauchari, what comes into view instead is an assembly of 960,000 solar panels. It is the world's highest photovoltaic (PV) park, which is also the second biggest solar energy facility in Latin America, after Mexico's Aguascalientes plant.

Spread over 800 hectares in an arid landscape, the Cauchari park has been operating for a year, and has so far turned sunshine into 315 megawatts of electricity, enough to power the local provincial capital of Jujuy through the national grid.

It has also generated some $50 million for the province, which Governor Gerardo Morales has allocated to building 239 schools.

Abundant sunshine, low temperatures

The physicist Martín Albornoz says Cauchari, which means "link to the sun," is exposed to the best solar radiation anywhere. The area has 260 days of sunshine, with no smog and relatively low temperatures, which helps keep the panels in optimal conditions.

Its construction began with a loan of more than $331 million from China's Eximbank, which allowed the purchase of panels made in Shanghai. They arrived in Buenos Aires in 2,500 containers and were later trucked a considerable distance to the site in Cauchari . This was a titanic project that required 1,200 builders and 10-ton cranes, but will save some 780,000 tons of CO2 emissions a year.

It is now run by 60 technicians. Its panels, with a 25-year guarantee, follow the sun's path and are cleaned twice a year. The plant is expected to have a service life of 40 years. Its choice of location was based on power lines traced in the 1990s to export power to Chile, now fed by the park.

Chinese engineers working in an office at the Cauchari park


Chinese want to expand

The plant belongs to the public-sector firm Jemse (Jujuy Energía y Minería), created in 2011 by the province's then governor Eduardo Fellner. Jemse's president, Felipe Albornoz, says that once Chinese credits are repaid in 20 years, Cauchari will earn the province $600 million.

The Argentine Energy ministry must now decide on the park's proposed expansion. The Chinese would pay in $200 million, which will help install 400,000 additional panels and generate enough power for the entire province of Jujuy.

The park's CEO, Guillermo Hoerth, observes that state policies are key to turning Jujuy into a green province. "We must change the production model. The world is rapidly cutting fossil fuel emissions. This is a great opportunity," Hoerth says.

The province's energy chief, Mario Pizarro, says in turn that Susques and three other provincial districts are already self-sufficient with clean energy, and three other districts would soon follow.

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