Geopolitics

People Of Palmyra, Where ISIS Puts Syrian History At Risk

Locals in the city of Palmyra speak out as ISIS threatens the treasured ancient ruins of their city, after destroying its notorious Assad regime prison that scarred so many.

Palmyra, in 2011.
Palmyra, in 2011.
Omar Abdullah

PALMYRA — Designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, the Syrian city of Palmyra used to attract tourists from across the world to visit its historic sites. Yet Palmyra and its historic ruins — an integral part of Syria's cultural and heritage — may be the Islamic State's next victim.

ISIS, which took over Palmyra in May, released a gruesome video on Saturday depicting the killing of dozens of Syrian army soldiers earlier this year. Twenty-five men were executed by teenagers in front of the historic amphitheater. The Assad regime's planes targeted the city with airstrikes the following day.

Campaigns to protect Palmyra's historic sites have begun to appear as fear grows that ISIS will destroy the ancient sites. In Syria, the prolonged bloodshed has resulted in the destruction of similarly important national landmarks, such as the historic market in Aleppo. Earlier this year, ISIS captured international headlines when its fighters smashed antiquities at the Mosul Museum in Iraq and bulldozed the ancient Assyrian city of Nimrud.

For many Syrians, Palmyra evokes memories of a country that now appears to be fading into history. Musa, a 33-year-old pharmacist, grew up in Palmyra and used to work as a local tour guide in order to pay his way through university. He told Syria Deeply: "The old rocks that the Islamic State calls idols enabled me to continue my studies and become a pharmacist."

Musa speaks warmly of his time as a tour guide, of meeting visitors from around the world. His connection with Palmyra was personal. When ISIS planted its black flag in the city as it continued its advance across Syria, he realized "it was the end of Palmyra."

Desert love


"I felt like I would never see the citadel again," he said, referring to one of the famed local sites. "I felt that I would never see tourists roaming the streets of this city with local children following them and trying to get a foreign coin that they could show off to their friends."

Musa met his wife, who was a student at the University of Damascus at the time, in Palmyra while she was on a school field trip. "I was their tour guide," he remembered, saying that years later he proposed to her "next to one of the historic columns" in Palmyra. "I will not see lovers kissing in the middle of the desert anymore," he added wistfully.


His wife Batoul, an archeologist, says they used to celebrate their anniversary each year in the same place he proposed to her in the city. "We won't be able to celebrate it this year," she said, sadly. "They ISIS don't let us get anywhere near the antiquities."

Batoul, who says the columns are "part of Syria's soul," is scared for Palmyra's future. Explaining that soldiers from the Assad regime had already looted much of the city's historic and cultural heritage, she added: "There is nothing left but these columns, which have been here for thousands of years. They are the heart and soul of the city. If the Islamic State destroys them, the city will not have any memory left."



ISIS is motivated by a number of factors in its assault on ancient treasures across the Middle East. Denouncing pre-Islamic heritage as heretical is only one of the reasons that Palmyra is on the militant group's radar. For many Syrians, Palmyra was also known for housing one of the Assad regime's most infamous prisons, Tadmor, which ISIS destroyed with explosives in late May after taking control of the city.

A 2001 report by the international watchdog Amnesty International described the Tadmor prison as "designed to inflict the maximum suffering, humiliation and fear on prisoners." Most of the prisoners had already been transferred elsewhere or released, but a handful of them were freed by ISIS fighters when the group took control of Palmyra.

"When I saw the pictures of the prison's ruins, I burst into tears," Musa said. "The pain that thousands of prisoners endured cannot be forgotten. I have many friends who have dark memories from inside that prison."

Crime covering crime


Nonetheless, Musa says that ISIS should not have destroyed the prison. He argues that the city's other history should also be preserved. "Our city has a dark history that is filled with horror and death," he explained. "I was hoping that one day it would be turned into a museum dedicated to the regime's brutality. What the Islamic State did was a crime that covers up another crime."



Haj Ahmad, in his late seventies, recalls his own relationship with Palmyra and its ancient history. "We live in an isolated location in this desert," he told Syria Deeply, "but these columns turned Palmyra into a world of its own."

He said the draw of the columns meant he met people from all over the world. "I used to go visit the old part of the city every Friday," Ahmad said. "To me, it represented the constant motion of history and the inevitability of change. Many civilizations passed through this place. Many kingdoms and empires rose and fell here."

But Haj Ahmad also experienced Palmyra's darker side firsthand. Imprisoned by the Assad regime for his alleged membership of the Muslim Brotherhood, he spent 23 years in the Palmyra prison. "I was never actually a member of the Muslim Brotherhood," he explained. "I didn't meet a member of the Muslim Brotherhood until I was in prison."

For many Syrians, the mention of Palmyra brings up memories of oppression and torture before heritage and history, Haj Ahmad explains. "We prisoners shared pain and torture," he said. "For five years after my release, I was too scared to be anywhere near the prison." 



Like Musa, Haj Ahmad struggles to believe that the Tadmor prison no longer exists. "We used to call that place the Bermuda Triangle," he said, "because when a person got stuck in there they needed a miracle to get out."


"Despite all the horror I experienced there, I didn't want the building destroyed," Ahmad said. "I dreamed of a free Syria, where the prison is used as an historic witness to all the pain that Syrians suffered. I wanted to take my grandchildren there and show them where I spent almost a quarter of a century because of a false accusation."

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Geopolitics

In Sudan, A Surprise About-Face Marks Death Of The Revolution

Ousted Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok was the face of the "stolen revolution". The fact that he accepted, out of the blue, to return at the same position, albeit on different footing, opens the door to the final legitimization of the coup.

Sudanese protesters demonstrating against the military regime in London on Nov. 20, 2021

Nesrine Malik

A little over a month ago, a military coup in Sudan ended a military-civilian partnership established after the 2019 revolution that removed President Omar al-Bashir after almost 30 years in power. The army arrested the Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok and, along with several of his cabinet and other civil government officials, threw him in detention. In the weeks that followed, the Sudanese military and their partners in power, the Rapid Support Forces, moved quickly.

They reappointed a new government of “technocrats” (read “loyalists”), shut down internet services, and violently suppressed peaceful protests against the coup and its sabotaging of the 2019 revolution. During those weeks, Hamdok remained the symbol of the stolen revolution, betrayed by the military, detained illegally, unable to communicate with the people who demanded his return. In his figure, the moral authority of the counter-coup resided.

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