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UNDARK
Undark Magazine is a non-profit, editorially independent digital magazine exploring the intersection of science and society.
Photo of five mothers holding their malnourished children
Society
Georgina Gustin

In Northern Kenya, Where Climate Change Is Measured In Starving Children

The worst drought in 40 years, which has deepened from the effects of climate change, is hitting the young the hardest around the Horn of Africa. A close-up look at the victims, and attempts to save lives and limit lasting effects on an already fragile region in Kenya.

This article originally appeared on Inside Climate News, a nonprofit, independent news organization that covers climate, energy and the environment. It is republished with permission. Sign up for their newsletter here.

KAKUMA — The words "Stabilization Ward" are painted in uneven black letters above the entrance, but everyone in this massive refugee camp in Kakuma, Kenya, calls it ya maziwa: The place of milk.

Rescue workers and doctors, mothers and fathers, have carried hundreds of starving children through the doors of this one-room hospital wing, which is sometimes so crowded that babies and toddlers have to share beds. A pediatric unit is only a few steps away, but malnourished children don’t go there. They need special care, and even that doesn’t always save them.

In an office of the International Rescue Committee nearby, Vincent Opinya sits behind a desk with figures on dry-erase boards and a map of the camp on the walls around him. “We’ve lost 45 children this year due to malnutrition,” he says, juggling emergencies, phone calls, and texts. “We’re seeing a significant increase in malnutrition cases as a result of the drought — the worst we’ve faced in 40 years.”

From January to June, the ward experienced an 800 percent rise in admissions of children under 5 who needed treatment for malnourishment — a surge that aid groups blame mostly on a climate change-fueled drought that has turned the region into a parched barren.

Opinya, the nutrition manager for the IRC here, has had to rattle off these statistics many times, but the reality of the numbers is starting to crack his professional armor. “It’s a very sad situation,” he says, wearily. And he believes it will only get worse. A third year of drought is likely on the way.

More children may die. But millions will survive malnutrition and hunger only to live through a compromised future, researchers say. The longer-term health effects of this drought — weakened immune systems, developmental problems — will persist for a generation or more, with consequences that will cascade into communities and societies for decades.

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Photo of bubbles exploding
Future
Tristan Greene

Hey ChatGPT, Are You A Google Killer? That's The Wrong Prompt People

Reports that the new AI natural-language chatbot is a threat to Google's search business fails to see that the two machines serve very different functions.

Since OpenAI unveiled ChatGPT to the world last November, people have wasted little time finding imaginative uses for the eerily human-like chatbot. They have used it to generate code, create Dungeons & Dragons adventures and converse on a seemingly infinite array of topics.

Now some in Silicon Valley are speculating that the masses might come to adopt the ChatGPT-style bots as an alternative to traditional internet searches.

Microsoft, which made an early $1 billion investment in OpenAI, plans to release an implementation of its Bing search engine that incorporates ChatGPT before the end of March. According to a recent article in The New York Times, Google has declared “code red” over fears ChatGPT could pose a significant threat to its $149-billion-dollar-a-year search business.

Could ChatGPT really be on the verge of disrupting the global search engine industry?

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photo of two people sitting on a bench covering their eyes from the sun
Society
Burcin Ikiz

Climate Change Is Bad For Your Brain

Scientists need to learn more about climate change’s negative impact on the nervous system in order to mitigate it.

Climate change is the biggest global health threat facing us today. According to the Lancet Countdown's 2022 report that came out in October, the climate crisis is “undermining every dimension of global health monitored." Its effects include direct impacts, such as extreme weather events and sea-level rise, as well as indirect ones, like increased food insecurity, forced migrations, the spread of infectious diseases, and heat-related illnesses.

But one piece of information missing in most health reports, as well as in many climate change studies and international conferences, such as COP27, is how it affects — and will affect — our brains.

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Photo of Brazilian minister of health
Future
Daniel Henryk Rasolt

Brazil, A Laboratory For The Boost Of Investing In Science — And The  Bust When You Don't

More than a decade ago, with the economy growing and political capital committed to public research and development, Brazil was the poster child for investing in the future. It was all bound to drop out quickly once the winds changed.

In 2010, Brazil’s economy was booming, students were entering higher education institutions at unprecedented rates, and quality research output was soaring.

At the time, I was visiting the country as a physics Ph.D. student, and I was struck by the enthusiastic optimism of the Brazilian researchers I met. Backed by increased government investment in science, they felt they were part of Brazil’s long-term transformation into a scientific and technological powerhouse, and a budding international hub of innovation.

Times have certainly changed.

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medical pills
Green Or Gone
Rachael Lyle*

Deny Evidence, Downplay Science: Big Oil Is Following Big Pharma's Legal Playbook

Opioid and oil companies alike have a history of obfuscating science as a litigation tactic. How does this harm victims?

Opioids and fossil fuels might seem like vastly different products. But both were marketed as panaceas for a more comfortable existence. Both have some legitimate uses, though we now know that safer alternatives exist for treating chronic pain and powering our economy. And in both instances, we could have known about the harms caused by these products decadessooner, had they not been deliberately concealed from the public for corporate profits.

As those harms have come to light, litigation has become the primary mechanism for attempting to protect the public. Here, too, the parallels continue.

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From Florida, The World's Most Secure Voting Machine (For Now)
eyes on the U.S.
*Spenser Mestel

From Florida, The World's Most Secure Voting Machine (For Now)

After 19 years of work, Juan Gilbert says he has invented an "unhackable" voting machine. Ahead of Tuesday's U.S. midterms, some hardware hope for the future of free elections.

In late 2020, a large box arrived at Juan Gilbert’s office at the University of Florida. The computer science professor had been looking for this kind of product for months. Previous orders had yielded poor results. This time, though, he was optimistic.

Gilbert drove the package home. Inside was a transparent box, built by a French company and equipped with a 27-inch touchscreen. Almost immediately, Gilbert began modifying it. He put a printer inside and connected the device to Prime III, the voting system he has been building since the first term of the George W. Bush administration.

After 19 years of building, tinkering, and testing, he told Undark this spring, he had finally invented “the most secure voting technology ever created.

”Gilbert didn’t just want to publish a paper outlining his findings. He wanted the election security community to recognize what he’d accomplished — to acknowledge that this was, in fact, a breakthrough. In the spring of 2022, he emailed several of the most respected and vocal critics of voting technology, including Andrew Appel, a computer scientist at Princeton University. He issued a simple challenge: Hack my machine.

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A bat on a blanket
FOCUS: Russia-Ukraine War
Wojciech Mikołuszko*

Russia's Turning The Small Dark World Of Ukrainian Bat Rescue A Whole Lot Darker

Struggling to save trapped and injured bats, scientists endure Russian shelling and accusations of spreading bioweapons.

As Russian forces advanced this summer on Kharkiv, Ukraine’s second-largest city, the façade of an eight-story apartment building in the Saltivka district suffered heavy damages from shelling, as did many other multi-family structures. Dozens of bullets scarred the gray front wall, and most of the upper windows were shattered.

By August, only a few families remained. Some noticed dozens of bats trapped in the lower windows. The animals had flown through broken panes of glass, then got stuck, unable to find an exit. Soon they were dying of dehydration and starvation.

Stay up-to-date with the latest on the Russia-Ukraine war, with our exclusive international coverage.

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But in a lucky turn of events, one of the families called the Ukrainian Bat Rehabilitation Center, an organization of biologists and veterinarians who rescue and treat injured bats. When Anton Vlaschenko, its director, and Lika But, a volunteer, arrived on the scene, they carefully removed the remaining animals, the majority of which were common noctules, or Nyctalus noctula. Eight of the bats were already dead. The remaining 18 they put inside a bag and took home. “We measured their body mass, fed them, watered and released them in the evening,” said Vlaschenko.

His organization, established in 2013, has become the largest bat rescue and research facility in Eastern Europe. But the war changed everything. The center lost all its funding in February, and some of its staff and collaborators were drafted. And hundreds of trapped bats -- which are a key part of the ecosystem -- began dying in destroyed or abandoned buildings.

Making matters worse, the Russian Ministry of Defense accused the center and collaborating researchers from the Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine in Kharkiv of developing bioweapons. On March 10, the Russian online newspaper Vzglyad accused them of working “in Pentagon biolaboratories” under the remote “supervision of specialists from the U.S.” to research bat parasites like mosquitos, lice, ticks, and fleas that “are able to spread dangerous infectious diseases.”

Despite accusations and bombing, rescue work continues

In fact, the center’s study of bat parasites was a side project developed with German researchers that, according to the abstract of a paper published in June 2021, aimed to “perform a molecular screening for selected vector-borne pathogens in ectoparasites collected from bats.” The goal, according to Vlaschenko and his team, was to find out which germs were able to jump from bats to other species, including humans.

On March 11, at a meeting of the U.N. Security Council, Russian Ambassador Vassily Nebenzia claimed that “bats were considered as carriers of potential bioweapons.” Yet later that day, speaking in New York, Izumi Nakamitsu, the U.N.'s high representative for disarmament affairs, said “The U.N. is not aware of any biological weapons program being conducted in Ukraine.”

Despite the accusations and frequent bombing, the center continued its bat rescue efforts throughout the spring and summer, and decided not to blur the faces of its members on rescue videos posted on its Facebook page. “If Russians really came to the city,” Vlaschenko said, “we would’ve been imprisoned and possibly tortured.”

All of wildlife has to be rescued

As the war ground on, the center scrambled to save bats wherever it could. August, in particular, “was a crazy period,” said Vlaschenko. “The city was full of bats and each day we had two to four cases of bats trapped in flats or in windows. For a month we found nearly 3,000 bats, alive and dead, in Kharkiv.” He managed to keep the animals that required care in cages at his family’s apartment, as many as 40 at a time.

Even now, after Ukrainian forces launched a successful counteroffensive in September that resulted in the withdrawal of Russian troops from the Kharkiv area, Vlaschenko said that he and his colleagues are struggling to fulfill their mission: “We have three main directions of our activity: educating people about bats, scientific research, and bat rehabilitation.”

A place to hibernate

A solider from the Ukraine army holding a bat

Ukrainian Bat Rehabilitation Center's Facebook page


Despite their sinister reputation as nocturnal blood-suckers, European bats do not feed on blood and instead devour huge numbers of insects — moths, beetles, and mosquitoes — thus making them an essential components of the continent’s ecosystems.

According to the rehabilitation center’s website, there are 28 known bat species in Ukraine, 13 of which are found in the Kharkiv region. One of the organization’s main goals is educating the public. “Ordinary people do not care about bats in Ukraine,” he said.

Vlaschenko was intitially drawn to bats in the early 2000s as a zoology student at V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. “All of wildlife has to be rescued,” he said, noting the particular dangers bats face. During the winter the animals hibernate, and they need a place where the temperature is low but above the freezing point, often choosing cellars and attics, where they stay from late October through late March.

In Kharkiv, where winter temperatures stay below minus 4 degrees Fahrenheit for days, bats often freeze or die of starvation. As a student, whenever Vlaschenko heard of bats disturbed by construction work during cold months, he rushed to save them by bringing them to his apartment, where he fed, watered, and kept them until he could release them safely in the spring.

In 2013, with financial help from Oleksandr Feldman, a politician and one of the wealthiest men in Ukraine, Vlaschenko, along with two colleagues — Alona Prylutska and Ksenia Kravchenko — set up the Ukrainian Bat Rehabilitation Center in a park owned by Feldman north of Kharkiv. Called Feldman Ecopark, the place promotes itself as a mix of “animal care and therapy for children with special needs.”

In a forested area of Feldman Ecopark, they built something the researchers call a bat-collider, a 65-foot-long tunnel, 6 feet high and 6 feet wide, where bats can fly or hibernate. Each year, 1,000 to 3,000 rescued bats have wintered there, before their release in late March. In the late summer and early fall, the staff also cared for orphaned or injured bats, and helped bats that got lost during migration. People from across Ukraine and Eastern Europe began sending them sick or injured bats.

During the heavy bombardment at the beginning of the war, the center’s staff hid in cellars and other underground shelters, as did most Ukrainian citizens. But people kept spotting hibernating bats. “We got a lot of calls even from soldiers who found bats in bunkers,” said Vlaschenko.

Why are the benefits of bats?

Initially, the staff lost access to the more than 1,000 animals hibernating in Feldman Ecopark, though they were able to place bats requiring more attention in private homes. In March, however, during the shelling of Kharkiv, the staff ventured back to the bat-collider to release the bats waking up from hibernation. “We cannot provide details about our journey,” the center posted on its Facebook page, but it was “close to the frontline.” Most of animals were in good condition, and they were able to free some 1,000 bats into the wild.

Until this year, the frozen carcasses of those bats too sick or injured beyond recovery were used for scientific research into areas like sexual dimorphism (the anatomical differences between males and females), skull shapes, pollution, and parasites. “They truly had a group of people who knew how to help bats, including those sick or injured,” said Ewa Komar, a bat scientist from Mammal Research Institute Polish Academy of Sciences in Białowieża, Poland, who was unable to find local veterinarians specializing in bats and turned to the Ukrainian team for guidance. “They developed very effective animal rehabilitation methods and shared them through a series of scientific publications and lectures at international conferences.”

They risk their lives to save bats and scientific collections

Ryszard Laskowski, an ecotoxicologist from Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland, said Vlaschenko approached him a few years ago to offer to share his collection of frozen bats. “We have an excellent Ph.D. student from his group,” he said. “She studies contamination of bats checked if external tissues can be used to predict internal pollution with lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium.”

The student, Olha Timofieieva, published a study in 2021 that showed the usefulness of bats as a “bioindicator species,” in which the level of pollution in their systems can reflect environmental conditions. She also discovered that the fur and wing membrane in one bat species could be used to check the accumulation of lead inside the animal, allowing for non-invasive methods to measure their inner organs’ contamination.

“I admire these people,” said Laskowski. “After all, they risk their lives to save bats and scientific collections.”

Support from abroad

a woman giving water to a bat through a syringe

Ukrainian Bat Rehabilitation Center's Facebook page


Almost all the research and international collaboration abruptly stopped on Feb. 24, when Russia invaded Ukraine. A private Ukrainian foundation that sponsored the project was no longer able to provide support, leaving the center to rely on financing from abroad. “We got several grants 1,000 to 5,000 euros each from organizations like International Animal Rescue or International Fund for Animal Welfare,” said Vlaschenko.

Crucial support also came from neighboring Poland. “We had a lot of calls from rehabilitation centers in Poland — we can help you, we can take your bats abroad,” according to Vlaschenko. Laskowski said “we provided them with laboratory equipment like vials and scissors for dissection. Also, we supported them financially a little bit.”

“Last winter, the Polish Academy of Sciences, including our institute, prepared some job offers and accommodation for Ukrainian researchers,” Komar added. “We sent a proposal to people from Kharkiv. They declined.”

“We decided we are here, in Ukraine, and we are going to continue our project,” explained Vlaschenko.

In April, Kharkiv remained partially encircled by Russian troops. In June and July Russians destroyed some of its public buildings, as well as a bus station not far from the center’s office, killing 20 people, though none from the bat team. In August, when missiles hit two Kharkiv dormitories, another 25 people were killed and several dozen injured.

Though the success of the recent counteroffensive has relieved some of the pressure, civilians, including the center’s team, are still not allowed to return to the Feldman Ecopark area.

“Our message to people abroad is: we are here and we are going to resist,” said Vlaschenko. “We want to continue our scientific and conservation activities.”

*Wojciech Mikołuszko is a Polish book author and science journalist. From 2010 to 2011, he was a fellow in the Knight Science Journalism Program at MIT.

This article was originally published on Undark. Read the original article.

Black-and-white photograph of ​Jewish women waiting in line at Auschwitz-Birkenau in 1944
Ideas
Hallie Lieberman

Holocaust Survivor Fertility And The Importance Of History's Most Intimate Questions

Perpetuating the silence around sex and body issues can lead to misinterpreting historical events, and prevent us from taking action to right wrongs.

-Analysis-

Recently, a group of Auschwitz survivors was asked a basic question: How did the Holocaust affect your period?

Although many had previously been interviewed by the Shoah Foundation, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and the Montreal Holocaust Museum, nobody had ever conducted in-depth interviews with them about their menstrual cycles in the more than seven decades since they survived the concentration camp — that is, until researchers from the University of Ottawa and Oxford Brookes University sought to learn more about women’s infertility after the Holocaust.

While scholars have studied the medical experiments that Nazis conducted on some concentration camp prisoners, these victims were a relatively small subset of that population. Researchers had not examined whether treatments inhibiting fertility were routinely applied to the general population of female prisoners, as some researchers now suspect.

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