Is this China's big moment? The World Economic Forum in Davos is welcoming Chinese president Xi Jinping as a special guest. It's the first time a Chinese leader has attended the event. It marks a historic moment, not least because it comes just a few days before Donald Trump will be sworn in as the new president of the United States of America. Trump symbolizes chaotic populism. His trademark attacks include lashing out at "the elite" and the free trade that has governed the last century — exactly the sort of things the Davos gathering stands for.
Trump's election, Britain's departure from the European Union, the old continent paralyzed by crises, self-doubt and right-wing populists — the long-standing world order seems to be falling apart. Theories of the insidious downfall of the West have been circulating in China since the global financial crisis of 2008. With Trump as president, the U.S. seems to have reached a turning point as a leading world power. Trump is unpredictable and aggressive. Moreover, he has already declared his country's withdrawal from international trade and climate protection agreements.
"The U.S. made room for China a lot earlier than expected," says Sebastian Heilmann, director of the China think tank Merics in Berlin. "For China that's a major opportunity. Beijing now wants to help shape globalization according to its own needs."
For Beijing, Davos is the ideal stage to promote its agenda. The last couple of years, China has benefited from globalization like no other country. But China also wants to change the rules of the game because it often feels like it's unfairly treated in the global capital markets.
There are areas like health policy and climate protection where China has demonstrated its readiness for global cooperation. But proclaiming China the new climate change pioneer seems a bit overstated. The Asian country remains the biggest polluter worldwide — by far. Although China has been called the new "standard-bearer of global free trade," it's a theory that has absolutely nothing to do with reality.
One thing's for sure: The country has become a global power and has a right to claim international recognition. It has been the world's second largest national economy for a while now. Chinese foreign investments are constantly on the rise. The chief executives and companies accompanying Xi to Davos underscore the global entitlement of Chinese actors: Jack Ma's e-commerce giant Alibaba is one of them, just like Wang Jianlin's conglomerate Wanda that's buying up Hollywood right now.
Since Trump's election, Beijing's propaganda presents China — not without satisfaction — as the only reliable provider of growth and holds up its policies as an enlightened system that gives populism no chance. The Financial Times writes that Xi will try to present himself in Davos as "one of the few responsible adults left on the global stage." In reality, China has sought for years an active role on this stage by promoting flagship projects such as the Asian infrastructure investment bank or the New Silk Road.
But taking a look at how these projects developed, it becomes clear that China is just trying to satisfy an agenda of national interest. Obviously, that's not in itself reprehensible, but if one pretends to be the guardian of the New World Order, it would help to follow the rules and play fair. That has not been the case with China. One striking example is its reaction to the verdict given by the International Criminal Court in The Hague last year, which declared China's territorial claims in the South China Sea mainly null and void. China simply ignored the judgment.
Another example: A study recently published by the think tank Merics concluded that China is proceeding in the "exact opposite" direction of free trade and fair competition. China's own economy is being sealed off and foreign competitors are systematically hindered. In Davos, China will moan about the new move toward "protectionism" and yet, it's the best example of an economy blocking foreign investors and excluding them from obtaining a real market share. For that exact reason, European investment in China has been dropping for several years now.
China could help itself, and the world, if it started to break up its crumbling state industry, open up its economy and give privatization a real chance. Reforms like these were promised by Xi when he took office in 2013. But there has been no economic policy changes so far mainly because the Communist Party of China, particularly under Xi, fears a loss of control. China is closing itself off to the world more and more each year.
Xi holds all the power — in politics and society, his people demand total control and absolute loyalty. Chinese propaganda pushes a certain ideology, punishes critical thinking, and demonizes the West as the new enemy. Xi's performance at Davos was rich in irony — most notable when we observe, in the Swiss mountains, communist China rubbing shoulders with the old elites, ever more exposed to the onslaught of unsatisfied people and nations all over the world.
With Halloween arriving, we have dug up the would-be ghosts of documented evil and bloodshed from the past.
When Hallows Eve was first introduced as a Celtic festival some 2,000 years ago, bonfires and costumes were seen as a legitimate way to ward off ghosts and evil spirits. Today of course, with science and logic being real ghostbusters, spine-chilling tales of haunted forests, abandoned asylums and deserted graveyards have rather become a way to add some mystery and suspense to our lives.
And yet there are still spooky places around the world that have something more than legend attached to them. From Spain to Uzbekistan and Australia, these locations prove that haunting lore is sometimes rooted in very real, and often terrible events.
Shahr-e Gholghola, City of Screams - Afghanistan
The ruins of Shahr-e Gholghola, the City of Screams, in Afghanistan
According to locals, ghosts from this ancient royal citadel located in the Valley of Bamyan, 150 miles northwest of Kabul, have been screaming for 800 years. You can hear them from miles away, at twilight, when they relive their massacre.
In the spring 1221, the fortress built by Buddhist Ghorids in the 6th century became the theater of the final battle between Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire, and the Mongol Horde led by Genghis Khan. It is said that Khan's beloved grandson, Mutakhan, had been killed on his mission to sack Bamyan. To avenge him, the Mongol leader went himself and ordered to kill every living creature in the city, children included.
The ruins today bear the name of Shahr-e Gholghola, meaning City of Screams or City of Sorrows. The archeological site, rich in Afghan history, is open to the public and though its remaining walls stay quiet during the day, locals say that the night brings the echoes of fear and agony. Others claim the place comes back to life eight centuries ago, and one can hear the bustle of the city and people calling each other.
Gettysburg, Civil War battlefield - U.S.
View of the battlefields from Little Round Top, Gettysburg, PA, USA
Even ghosts non-believers agree there is something eerie about Gettysbury. The city in the state of Pennsylvania is now one of the most popular destinations in the U.S. for spirits and paranormal activities sight-seeing; and many visitors report they witness exactly what they came for: sounds of drums and gunshots, spooky encounters and camera malfunctions in one specific spot… just to name a few!
The Battle of Gettysburg, for which President Abraham Lincoln wrote his best known public address, is considered a turning point in the Civil War that led to the Union's victory. It lasted three days, from July 1st to July 3rd, 1863, but it accounts for the worst casualties of the entire conflict, with 23,000 on the Union side (3,100 men killed) and 28,000 for the Confederates (including 3,900 deaths). Thousands of soldiers were buried on the battlefield in mass graves - without proper rites, legend says - before being relocated to the National Military Park Cemetery for the Unionists.
Since then, legend has it, their restless souls wander, unaware the war has ended. You can find them everywhere, on the battlefield or in the town's preserved Inns and hotels turned into field hospitals back then.
Belchite, Civil War massacre - Spain
Old Belchite, Spain
Shy lost souls wandering and briefly appearing in front of visitors, unexplainable forces attracting some to specific places of the town, recorded noises of planes, gunshots and bombs, like forever echoes of a drama which left an open wound in Spanish history…
That wound, still unhealed, is the Spanish Civil War; and at its height in 1937, Belchite village, located in the Zaragoza Province in the northeast of Spain, represented a strategic objective of the Republican forces to take over the nearby capital city of Zaragoza.
Instead of being a simple step in their operation, it became the field of an intense battle opposing the loyalist army and that of General Francisco Franco's. Between August 24 and September 6, more than 5,000 people were killed, including half of Belchite's population. The town was left in rubble. As a way to illustrate the Republicans' violence, Franco decided to leave the old town in ruins and build a new Belchite nearby. All the survivors were relocated there, but they had to wait 15 years for it to be complete.
If nothing particular happens in new Belchite, home to around 1,500 residents, the remains of old Belchite offer their share of chilling ghost stories. Some visitors say they felt a presence, someone watching them, sudden change of temperatures and strange sounds. The ruins of the old village have been used as a film set for Terry Gilliam's The Adventures of Baron Munchausen - with the crew reporting the apparition of two women dressed in period costumes - and Guillermo del Toro's Pan's Labyrinth. And in October 1986, members of the television program "Cuarta Dimensión" (the 4th dimension) spent a night in Belchite and came back with some spooky recordings of war sounds.
Gur Emir, a conquerer’s mausoleum - Uzbekistan
Gur Emir (Tomb of Timur) in Samarkand, Uzbekistan
The news echoed through the streets and bazaars of Samarkand: "The Russian expedition will open the tomb of Tamerlane the Great. It will be our curse!" It was June 1941, and a small team of Soviet researchers began excavations in the Gur-Emir mausoleum in southeastern Uzbekistan.
The aim was to prove that the remains in the tomb did in fact belong to Tamerlane — the infamous 14th-century conqueror and first ruler of the Timurid dynasty who some historians say massacred 1% of the world's population in 1360.
Still, on June 20, despite protests from local residents and Muslim clergy, Tamerlame's tomb was cracked open — marked with the inscription: "When I Rise From the Dead, The World Shall Tremble."
Only two days later, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, with the people of Samarkand linking it to the disturbing of Tamerlane's peace. Amid local protests, the excavation was immediately wrapped up and the remains of the Turkish/Mongol conqueror were sent to Moscow. The turning point in the war came with the victory in the Battle of Stalingrad — only a month after a superstitious Stalin ordered the return of Tamerlane's remains to Samarkand where the former emperor was re-buried with full honors.
Gamla Stan, a royal massacre - Sweden
The red house of Gamla Stan, Stockholm, Sweden
After Danish King Kristian II successfully invaded Sweden and was anointed King in November 1520, the new ruler called Swedish leaders to join for festivities at the royal palace in Stockholm. At dusk, after three days of wine, beer and spectacles, Danish soldiers carrying lanterns and torches entered the great hall and imprisoned the gathered nobles who were considered potential opponents of the Danish king. In the days that followed, 92 people were swiftly sentenced to death, and either hanged or beheaded on Stortorget, the main square in Gamla Stan (Old Town).
Until this day, the Stockholm Bloodbath is considered one of the most brutal events in Scandinavian history, and some people have reported visions of blood flowing across the cobblestoned square in early November. A little over a century later, a red house on the square was rebuilt as a monument for the executed — fitted with 92 white stones for each slain man. Legend has it that should one of the stones be removed, the ghost of the represented will rise from the dead and haunt the streets of Stockholm for all eternity.
Port Arthur, gruesome prison - Australia
Port Arthur Prison Settlement, Tasmania, Australia
During its 47-year history as a penal settlement, Port Arthur in southern Tasmania earned a reputation as one of the most notorious prisons in the British Empire. The institution — known for a brutal slavery system and punishment of the most hardened criminals sent from the motherland— claimed the lives of more than 1,000 inmates until its closure in 1877.
Since then, documented stories have spanned the paranormal gamut: poltergeist prisoners terrorizing visitors, weeping children roaming the port and tourists running into a weeping 'lady in blue' (apparently the spirit of a woman who died in childbirth). The museum even has an 'incidence form' ready for anyone wanting to report an otherworldly event.
Poveglia Island, plague victims - Italy
Poveglia Island, Italy
Located off the coast of Venice and Lido, Poveglia sadly reunites all the classical elements of a horror movie: plagues, mass burial ground and mental institute (from the 1920's).
During the bubonic plague and other subsequent pandemics, the island served as a quarantine station for the sick and anyone showing any signs of what could be Black Death contamination. Some 160,000 victims are thought to have died there and the seven acres of land became a mass burial ground so full that it is said that human ash makes up more than 50% of Poveglia's soil.
In 1922 a retirement home for the elderly — used as a clandestine mental institution— opened on the island and with it a fair amount of rumors involving torture of patients. The hospital and consequently the whole island was closed in 1968, leaving all the dead trapped off-land.
Poveglia's terrifying past earned it the nickname of 'Island of Ghosts'. Despite being strictly off-limits to visitors, the site has been attracting paranormal activity hunters looking for the apparition of lost and angry souls. The island would be so evil that some locals say that when an evil person dies, he wakes up in Poveglia, another kind of hell.
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