Siempre Picasso
Francesco Bonami

Many years ago, when Italian military service was still compulsory, the army subjected its new conscripts to a general culture test with various types of questions. One asked: “Who is Leonardo?,” which prompted a surprising range of responses. Someone, it seems, even replied “The pope.” The artist behind the most famous painting in the world, the Mona Lisa, wasn’t as famous as one might have thought.

If the question had been “Who is Picasso?” then the majority, if not all, would have probably given the right answer. How is it possible that the genius of all geniuses, the great Leonardo da Vinci, could be less famous than a modern artist, of whose actual works few would be able to name a single one? Why is Picasso so famous and every exhibition that carries his name guaranteed huge box-office success, regardless of what is on display?

To simplify matters, you could say that Leonardo’s own fame has been obscured by that of one of his masterpieces, the Mona Lisa itself. An oil painting so famous that it leaves its creator forgotten.

For Picasso, exactly the opposite is true. The boundless production of works, none of which have reached the heights of Mona Lisa fame, has allowed him to incarnate, without disruption from his own art, the ultimate myth of the modern artist. He became the first true star of art history: his face is unmistakable, as is the blue-striped shirt he adopted as a uniform, his life was an adventure, even if it was led for the most part between the walls of one or another of his villas in the south of France.

Picasso, Pre-Facebook

All famous artists henceforth are destined to compete with Picasso’s standard for fame. They will find themselves trying by any means, often much more sophisticated and far-flung than those employed by the Spaniard, to reach his heights of notoriety and success.

It was a trove of accomplishments accumulated over the course of the artist’s long life, which ended in 1973 at the age of 91. It was a life which, like a good investment fund, continues to produces riches not only for its heirs, but also for all those who still today continue to manage the works of this outsized giant of modern art.

The influence of Picasso on the generations that followed has been most obvious in the “Pic-Hirsts,” “Pic-Cattelans” or Pic-Koons:” artists who have made a true work of art out of their own image and cult of their own personality, just as Picasso did.

Picasso’s Mona Lisa is none other than the man himself, Pablo Picasso. It is as if the Mona Lisa had created Leonardo, rather than the other way round. What may appear even more confounding today about Picasso’s success, however, is that when the artist began to achieve fame, he didn’t have at his disposal the modern media machine, nor Facebook, nor the Internet, nor Google, nor a standard public relations agent.

Picasso spoke exclusively French and Spanish, and didn’t know any English and never traveled to the United States, where one of the temples of art, the Museum of Modern Art in New York, worshipped him and continues to worship him in its collection, like a god.

This painter who is more famous than Michelangelo and Leonardo, more identifiable even than the pope, has managed to transform his own name into a logo, a brand, as famous as CocaCola or McDonald’s. The signature of Picasso on a banner is unmistakable: even those who can’t read or who only read Cyrillic, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese or Korean will recognize it. Picasso is a name, a statue, a symbol, to also consider a modern brand like Prada.

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Merkel's Legacy: The Rise And Stall Of The German Economy

How have 16 years of Chancellor Angela Merkel changed Germany? The Chancellor accompanied the country's rise to near economic superpower status — and then progress stalled. On technology and beyond, Germany needs real reforms under Merkel's successor.

Chancellor Angela Merkel looks at the presentation of the current 2 Euro commemorative coin ''Brandenburg''

Daniel Eckert

BERLIN — Germans are doing better than ever. By many standards, the economy broke records during the reign of outgoing Chancellor Angela Merkel: private households' financial assets have climbed to a peak; the number of jobs recorded a historic high before the pandemic hit at the beginning of 2020; the GDP — the sum of all goods and services produced in a period — also reached an all-time high.

And still, while the economic balance sheet of Merkel's 16 years is outstanding if taken at face value, on closer inspection one thing catches the eye: against the backdrop of globalization, Europe's largest economy no longer has the clout it had at the beginning of the century. Germany has fallen behind in key sectors that will shape the future of the world, and even the competitiveness of its manufacturing industries shows unmistakable signs of fatigue.

In 2004, a year before Merkel was first elected Chancellor, the British magazine The Economist branded Germany the "sick man of Europe." Ironically, the previous government, a coalition of center-left and green parties, had already laid the foundations for recovery with some reforms. Facing the threat of high unemployment, unions had held back on wage demands.

"Up until the Covid-19 crisis, Germany had achieved strong economic growth with both high and low unemployment," says Michael Holstein, chief economist at DZ Bank. However, it never made important decisions for its future.

Another economist, Jens Südekum of Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf, offers a different perspective: "Angela Merkel profited greatly from the preparatory work of her predecessor. This is particularly true regarding the extreme wage restraint practiced in Germany in the early 2000s."

Above all, Germany was helped in the first half of the Merkel era by global economic upheaval. Between the turn of the millennium and the 2011-2012 debt crisis, emerging countries, led by China, experienced unprecedented growth. With many German companies specializing in manufacturing industrial machines and systems, the rise of rapidly industrializing countries was a boon for the country's economy.

Germany dismissed Google as an over-hyped tech company.

Digital competitiveness, on the other hand, was not a big problem in 2005 when Merkel became chancellor. Google went public the year before, but was dismissed as an over-hyped tech company in Germany. Apple's iPhone was not due to hit the market until 2007, then quickly achieved cult status and ushered in a new phase of the global economy.

Germany struggled with the digital economy, partly because of the slow expansion of internet infrastructure in the country. Regulation, lengthy start-up processes and in some cases high taxation contributed to how the former economic wonderland became marginalized in some of the most innovative sectors of the 21st century.

Volkswagen's press plant in Zwickau, Germany — Photo: Jan Woitas/dpa/ZUMA

"When it comes to digitization today, Germany has a lot of catching up to do with the relevant infrastructure, such as the expansion of fiber optics, but also with digital administration," says Stefan Kooths, Director of the Economic and Growth Research Center at the Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).

For a long time now, the country has made no adjustments to its pension system to ward off the imminent demographic problems caused by an increasingly aging population. "The social security system is not future-proof," says Kooths. The most recent changes have come at the expense of future generations and taxpayers, the economist says.

Low euro exchange rates favored German exports

Nevertheless, things seemed to go well for the German economy at the start of the Merkel era. In part, this can be explained by the economic downturn caused by the euro debt crisis of 2011-2012. Unlike in the previous decade, the low euro exchange rate favored German exports and made money flow into German coffers. And since then-European Central Bank president Mario Draghi's decision to save the euro "whatever it takes" in 2012, this money has become cheaper and cheaper.

In the long run, these factors inflated the prices of real estate and other sectors but failed to contribute to the future viability of the country. "With the financial crisis and the national debt crisis that followed, economic policy got into crisis mode, and it never emerged from it again," says DZ chief economist Holstein. Policy, he explains, was geared towards countering crises and maintaining the status quo. "The goal of remaining competitive fell to the background, as did issues concerning the future."

In the traditional field of manufacturing, the situation deteriorated significantly. The Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft (IW), which regularly measures and compares the competitiveness of industries in different countries, recently concluded that German companies have lost many of the advantages they had gained. The high level of productivity, which used to be one of the country's strengths, faltered in the years before the pandemic.

Kooths, of IfW Kiel, points out that private investment in the German economy has declined in recent years, while the "government quota" in the economy, which describes the amount of government expenditure against the GDP, grew significantly during Merkel's tenure, from 43.5% in 2005 to 46.5% in 2019. Kooths concludes that: "Overall, the state's influence on economic activity has increased significantly."

Another very crucial aspect of competitiveness, at least from the point of view of skilled workers and companies, has been neglected by German politics for years: taxes and social contributions. The country has among the highest taxes on income in Europe, and corporate taxes are also hardly as high as in Germany anywhere in the industrialized world. "In the long run, high tax rates always come at the expense of economic dynamism and can even prevent new companies from being set up," warns Kooths.

Startups can renew an economy and lay the foundation for future prosperity. Between the year 2000 and the Covid-19 crisis, fewer and fewer new companies were created every year. Economists from left to right are unanimous: Angela Merkel is leaving behind a country with considerable need for reform.

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