Leonardo, Revived: Daring To Touch A Da Vinci Masterpiece

Cinzia Pasquali had the honor of restoring Leonardo Da Vinci's prized oil painting "The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne," now featured at the Louvre. The assignment was 18 months fraught with nerves, in-fighting and endless int

Alberto Mattioli

PARIS - If ever you could touch a Leonardo, your hands were surely be shaking - not Cinzia Pasquali.

The Rome native is the restorer of The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne, a prized oil painting by Leonardo da Vinci, now the focus of a major exhibition at the Louvre sponsored by Ferragamo, running through June 25. For the first time, letters about Saint Anne, sketches, and 22 drawings from The Queen of England's collection have been gathered on display in the Louvre's Hall Napoléon. The show explores the influence of late 15th century painting on artists such as Eugène Delacroix, Edgar Degas, Odilon Redon and Max Ernst.

The exhibition is like a walk through Leonardo's studio with, at the end, the new St. Anne, which is the same as always... yet somehow changed. After years of studies and debates, the Paris museum decided to commission the restoration of the masterpiece, and selected Pasquali. On the canvas, behind this holy family with two mothers, a village has somehow appeared, the Virgin Mary's mantle is lapis lazuli blue, and her feet are dipping into water.

Pasquali put her hands on Leonardo's work, and rediscovered these previously lost details.

Why and how you were chosen for this job?
There was a contest, which is an unusual procedure, chosen by the Louvre museum and the Center for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France. There were seven competitors, and, well, I won. It was July 2010.

What did you think?
At first, I thought I had misunderstood because they told me the news on the phone and the confirmation letter took a while to arrive. But when I knew for sure, I had to measure the responsibilities: I started to study everything that was known about this painting. Luckily, in 1994 some tests for a possible restoration -- which never took place -- had been done.

Then, you started to clean...
I used a new technique, a gel created by Paolo Cremonesi a professor of computer system architectures at Politecnico di Milano. We didn't want to completely erase all the paints that had overlapped through the centuries and oxidized, but to reduce them. A restoration must be reversible. Let's say that this Saint Anne will last for the next 50 to 70 years. Then, we'll see.

Of course, the issue was how much to reduce.
I have always worked under the control of an international scientific committee to which I submitted the different tests and which got together every two or three months. The debate between supporters of a lighter treatment and supporters of a deeper treatment was intense. At the end, as always happens, we reached a compromise.

But personally, what do you think?
I would have gone even deeper. But we decided to leave a good deal of what is, very improperly, called time's patina.

Nonetheless, there were controversies.
Two members of the committee resigned. One was against the restoration from the beginning, so it's not clear why he had chosen to take part in it. Another one was attached to Saint Anne as she had always known it.

After the cleaning, you repainted.
Don't even make that joke. I just plugged some small gaps, such as some holes made by bugs.

Are you more concerned of taking away or adding on?
For sure about taking away. If you take away one more layer, it is gone forever.

There were many surprises. What was the most moving?
Finding the marks of Leonardo's hands. Actually, his fingerprints. He spread the color with his fingertips. After all, I do the same.

For how long did you live together with Saint Anne?
For a year and a half, every day, from 8.30 a.m. to 6 p.m. This painting was a great love, or indeed, an obsession. I dreamed of it at night.

Would you like to restore Mona Lisa?
Of course. And I'm sure there would be many surprises. Prado Museum's Mona Lisa is on display. It is a copy with more vivid and bright colors. I think that if we restored it, the real Mona Lisa would look more similar to the copy.

You put your hands where Leonardo put his. What's your take on him?
I think he was a huge neurotic. He never finished anything because he was always looking for something that eluded him. He chased an ideal so lofty it had to be elusive.

One last question. Now that the work is over, what do you feel?
Over all, I feel a huge admiration for Leonardo. He is a genius.

Read more from La Stampa in Italian

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Merkel's Legacy: The Rise And Stall Of The German Economy

How have 16 years of Chancellor Angela Merkel changed Germany? The Chancellor accompanied the country's rise to near economic superpower status — and then progress stalled. On technology and beyond, Germany needs real reforms under Merkel's successor.

Chancellor Angela Merkel looks at the presentation of the current 2 Euro commemorative coin ''Brandenburg''

Daniel Eckert

BERLIN — Germans are doing better than ever. By many standards, the economy broke records during the reign of outgoing Chancellor Angela Merkel: private households' financial assets have climbed to a peak; the number of jobs recorded a historic high before the pandemic hit at the beginning of 2020; the GDP — the sum of all goods and services produced in a period — also reached an all-time high.

And still, while the economic balance sheet of Merkel's 16 years is outstanding if taken at face value, on closer inspection one thing catches the eye: against the backdrop of globalization, Europe's largest economy no longer has the clout it had at the beginning of the century. Germany has fallen behind in key sectors that will shape the future of the world, and even the competitiveness of its manufacturing industries shows unmistakable signs of fatigue.

In 2004, a year before Merkel was first elected Chancellor, the British magazine The Economist branded Germany the "sick man of Europe." Ironically, the previous government, a coalition of center-left and green parties, had already laid the foundations for recovery with some reforms. Facing the threat of high unemployment, unions had held back on wage demands.

"Up until the Covid-19 crisis, Germany had achieved strong economic growth with both high and low unemployment," says Michael Holstein, chief economist at DZ Bank. However, it never made important decisions for its future.

Another economist, Jens Südekum of Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf, offers a different perspective: "Angela Merkel profited greatly from the preparatory work of her predecessor. This is particularly true regarding the extreme wage restraint practiced in Germany in the early 2000s."

Above all, Germany was helped in the first half of the Merkel era by global economic upheaval. Between the turn of the millennium and the 2011-2012 debt crisis, emerging countries, led by China, experienced unprecedented growth. With many German companies specializing in manufacturing industrial machines and systems, the rise of rapidly industrializing countries was a boon for the country's economy.

Germany dismissed Google as an over-hyped tech company.

Digital competitiveness, on the other hand, was not a big problem in 2005 when Merkel became chancellor. Google went public the year before, but was dismissed as an over-hyped tech company in Germany. Apple's iPhone was not due to hit the market until 2007, then quickly achieved cult status and ushered in a new phase of the global economy.

Germany struggled with the digital economy, partly because of the slow expansion of internet infrastructure in the country. Regulation, lengthy start-up processes and in some cases high taxation contributed to how the former economic wonderland became marginalized in some of the most innovative sectors of the 21st century.

Volkswagen's press plant in Zwickau, Germany — Photo: Jan Woitas/dpa/ZUMA

"When it comes to digitization today, Germany has a lot of catching up to do with the relevant infrastructure, such as the expansion of fiber optics, but also with digital administration," says Stefan Kooths, Director of the Economic and Growth Research Center at the Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).

For a long time now, the country has made no adjustments to its pension system to ward off the imminent demographic problems caused by an increasingly aging population. "The social security system is not future-proof," says Kooths. The most recent changes have come at the expense of future generations and taxpayers, the economist says.

Low euro exchange rates favored German exports

Nevertheless, things seemed to go well for the German economy at the start of the Merkel era. In part, this can be explained by the economic downturn caused by the euro debt crisis of 2011-2012. Unlike in the previous decade, the low euro exchange rate favored German exports and made money flow into German coffers. And since then-European Central Bank president Mario Draghi's decision to save the euro "whatever it takes" in 2012, this money has become cheaper and cheaper.

In the long run, these factors inflated the prices of real estate and other sectors but failed to contribute to the future viability of the country. "With the financial crisis and the national debt crisis that followed, economic policy got into crisis mode, and it never emerged from it again," says DZ chief economist Holstein. Policy, he explains, was geared towards countering crises and maintaining the status quo. "The goal of remaining competitive fell to the background, as did issues concerning the future."

In the traditional field of manufacturing, the situation deteriorated significantly. The Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft (IW), which regularly measures and compares the competitiveness of industries in different countries, recently concluded that German companies have lost many of the advantages they had gained. The high level of productivity, which used to be one of the country's strengths, faltered in the years before the pandemic.

Kooths, of IfW Kiel, points out that private investment in the German economy has declined in recent years, while the "government quota" in the economy, which describes the amount of government expenditure against the GDP, grew significantly during Merkel's tenure, from 43.5% in 2005 to 46.5% in 2019. Kooths concludes that: "Overall, the state's influence on economic activity has increased significantly."

Another very crucial aspect of competitiveness, at least from the point of view of skilled workers and companies, has been neglected by German politics for years: taxes and social contributions. The country has among the highest taxes on income in Europe, and corporate taxes are also hardly as high as in Germany anywhere in the industrialized world. "In the long run, high tax rates always come at the expense of economic dynamism and can even prevent new companies from being set up," warns Kooths.

Startups can renew an economy and lay the foundation for future prosperity. Between the year 2000 and the Covid-19 crisis, fewer and fewer new companies were created every year. Economists from left to right are unanimous: Angela Merkel is leaving behind a country with considerable need for reform.

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