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LGBT In China, Victims Of Brutal 'Conversion Therapy' Industry

From shock therapy treatment to nausea pills to fake marriages, Chinese gays, lesbian and transgender are targeted by clinics and family trying to turn them straight.

Unlike the mainland, in Hong Kong gay pride is openly displayed
Unlike the mainland, in Hong Kong gay pride is openly displayed
Julie Zaugg

BEIJING — The device included a small square box connected to two long antennas, Yanhui Peng, a 34-year-old Chinese man, recalls. It was placed on a table near a couch in the center of the doctor's office in Chongqing, in western China.

"He told me to lie down and close my eyes," says Yanhui Peng, who goes by the nickname Yanzi, meaning "swallow" (as in the bird) in Chinese. "Then he hypnotized me. When I was slipping away, he told me to think about men's bodies and to move my fingers if that aroused sexual desire in me."

The next thing this slender man with an unflinching look remembered was the searing pain he felt in his arm. "He had electrocuted me with this device," he says angrily. Yanhui Peng jumped to his feet, horrified. The doctor was laughing.

"He told me homosexuality was a criminal offense and that it could cause diseases," the man recalls. "He promised me that if I accepted his treatment I could become heterosexual."

Yanhui Peng had paid 30,000 yuan (about $4,350) — a small fortune in China — for 30 sessions of "conversion therapy." Afterwards, he decided to sue the clinic. In 2014, a court in Beijing ruled in his favor.

In China, dozens of hospitals offer these kinds of treatments. "There are private clinics but also big public institutions like the Zhejiang University School of Medicine and a big center dedicated to mental illness in Guangzhou," says Yanhui Peng, who now works for an NGO to prosecute other providers of so-called conversion therapy.

Patients are subjected to electric shocks or cold showers and are given a cocktail of medication that includes antidepressants and nausea-inducing pills they have to take when watching gay pornographic movies. Some hospitals offer blood tests, DNA analyses and brain scans as well.

"If the results are normal, and they usually are, the doctor tells you that you can be cured because your homosexuality isn't genetic," the activist says.

Voluntary conversion

Some gay men are forced into treatment against their will. When one 36-year-old man from Henan province told his wife he wanted a divorce, she organized a kind of commando-style operation with the whole family. They tied the man's feet and hands and bundled him off to a psychiatric clinic, where he was imprisoned for 19 days. Forced to take medication and beaten on a regular basis, he finally managed to escape.

The Henan man's case is an exception. Most of the time, people who receive conversion therapy do so willingly.

Kuen-Ting not his real name, a shy young man with a delicate face, pursued such treatment in Hong Kong a few years ago. "I was 22, studying at the university when I fell in love with a classmate," he says. "I come from a very religious family and many of my friends are Christians so I was really scared of their reaction."

Kuen-Ting, now 32, tried to hide his feelings but, in the end, opened up to the man he loved. "He told me about a therapy to cure my homosexuality," he recalls. The therapy was offered by New Creation, an evangelical organization founded by a psychiatrist, Hong Kwai-Wah, who developed a cognitive-behavioral treatment he describes as "post-gay." The approach assumes that sexuality is volatile.

"The idea that people are "born this way" is not based on any scientific evidence," the psychiatrist says. "I have been working for 30 years and I have seen more than 100 homosexuals change their sexual orientation."

Hong Kwai-Wah thinks it's impossible to erase the feelings someone might have. But it is possible, he says, "to choose not to live like a gay person" — namely by not having sexual relations with a person of the same gender. He claims his success rate is 38%, including some who "abandon" their homosexuality entirely.

"Something dirty"

At New Creation, Kuen-Ting is told to treat the friend he fell in love with like a friend, to see him less often, to stop masturbating, and to pray instead. He was also urged to adopt more masculine activities. "I started playing basketball," he recalls.

But he didn't feel any improvement. Quite the opposite, in fact. "After one year I was depressed. My academic performance was bad and I suffered from anxiety attacks. I felt guilty because I thought I was the one to blame if I couldn't change, that I wasn't trying hard enough," he says.

New Creation eventually sent Kuen-Ting to Hong Kwai-Wah, who prescribed him an array of medication: antidepressants, tranquilizers and sleeping pills. But it didn't work — the pain was still there. "We cannot be forced to become someone we're not," says Kuen-Ting.

After a year and a half, he gave up and joined a gay church. He's now a social worker, helping other young people who face the same situation he experienced. He just ended a four-year relationship with a young man his mother accepted "as her own son."

How do we explain the barbaric "therapies' still inflicted on gay men? In China, homophobia is widespread — not so much for religious reasons as cultural ones. "Since the Cultural Revolution, sexuality has been considered to be something dirty, something that we don't talk about. Its one and only goal is reproduction,: notes Ying Xing, who runs the Beijing LGBT Center.

In this context, homosexuality is perceived as a form of deviance. "It wasn't decriminalized until 1997 and it was only removed from the list of mental illnesses in 2011," says Reggie Ho, president of the Pink Alliance NGO.

The government recently issued a directive that forbids television programs from showing "abnormal sexual relations' such as incest, rape, and yes, homosexuality. Chinese media tends to link homosexuality to AIDS or sexual addiction. It's also goes in the face of expectations about marriage and offspring.

"In China, if you come out, your parents will worry first off about the fact that you're not going to get married or give them grandchildren," says Tommy Chen, of the Rainbow Action NGO.

In a country where retirement pensions are nearly nonexistent, children are expected to take care of senior citizens — a trend aggravated by the one-child policy. The pressure is so strong that forums were created to help gay men and lesbians meet and get fake marriage contracts to ease parental pressure.

Yanhui Peng knows this double life all too well. "When I sued the clinic, I got on television. So I had to come out to my brother and my sister," he recalls. The siblings rejected him at first. His brother eventually got used to it but not his sister. "She told me homosexuality was a disease that you can catch. And so it can be cured," Yanhui Peng says.

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Green

In Argentina, A Visit To World's Highest Solar Energy Park

With loans and solar panels from China, the massive solar park has been opened a year and is already powering the surrounding areas. Now the Chinese supplier is pushing for an expansion.

960,000 solar panels have been installed at the Cauchari park

Silvia Naishtat


CAUCHARI
— Driving across the border with Chile into the northwest Argentine department of Susques, you may spot what looks like a black mass in the distance. Arriving at a 4,000-meter altitude in the municipality of Cauchari, what comes into view instead is an assembly of 960,000 solar panels. It is the world's highest photovoltaic (PV) park, which is also the second biggest solar energy facility in Latin America, after Mexico's Aguascalientes plant.

Spread over 800 hectares in an arid landscape, the Cauchari park has been operating for a year, and has so far turned sunshine into 315 megawatts of electricity, enough to power the local provincial capital of Jujuy through the national grid.


It has also generated some $50 million for the province, which Governor Gerardo Morales has allocated to building 239 schools.

Abundant sunshine, low temperatures

The physicist Martín Albornoz says Cauchari, which means "link to the sun," is exposed to the best solar radiation anywhere. The area has 260 days of sunshine, with no smog and relatively low temperatures, which helps keep the panels in optimal conditions.

Its construction began with a loan of more than $331 million from China's Eximbank, which allowed the purchase of panels made in Shanghai. They arrived in Buenos Aires in 2,500 containers and were later trucked a considerable distance to the site in Cauchari . This was a titanic project that required 1,200 builders and 10-ton cranes, but will save some 780,000 tons of CO2 emissions a year.

It is now run by 60 technicians. Its panels, with a 25-year guarantee, follow the sun's path and are cleaned twice a year. The plant is expected to have a service life of 40 years. Its choice of location was based on power lines traced in the 1990s to export power to Chile, now fed by the park.

Chinese engineers working in an office at the Cauchari park

Xinhua/ZUMA

Chinese want to expand

The plant belongs to the public-sector firm Jemse (Jujuy Energía y Minería), created in 2011 by the province's then governor Eduardo Fellner. Jemse's president, Felipe Albornoz, says that once Chinese credits are repaid in 20 years, Cauchari will earn the province $600 million.

The Argentine Energy ministry must now decide on the park's proposed expansion. The Chinese would pay in $200 million, which will help install 400,000 additional panels and generate enough power for the entire province of Jujuy.

The park's CEO, Guillermo Hoerth, observes that state policies are key to turning Jujuy into a green province. "We must change the production model. The world is rapidly cutting fossil fuel emissions. This is a great opportunity," Hoerth says.

The province's energy chief, Mario Pizarro, says in turn that Susques and three other provincial districts are already self-sufficient with clean energy, and three other districts would soon follow.

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