Sources

How One-Child Policy Still Weighs On China's Fertility Rate

Three years after the end of the one-child policy, China's fertility rates are now falling. To have, or not have, children ought to be built on personal and family wishes, something the government still hasn't understood.

 Chian's birthrate continues to fall sharply
Chian's birthrate continues to fall sharply
Yan Yong

BEIJING On Jan. 21, China's National Bureau of Statistics published the number of newborns in 2018: 15.23 million, two million fewer than the year before — and nearly 6 million fewer than what was predicted by the National Health and Family Planning Commission.

What this means is that after China loosened up its one-child policy three years ago, the country's birthrate continues to fall sharply instead of going up as was originally expected.

This was in fact already predicted. A while ago, U.S. financial services company Goldman Sachs lowered the target share price of several Chinese dairy giants because the number of newborns in China is declining. Goldman Sachs expects that sales of infant formula will remain mostly flat in 2019, with the possibility of going up by only 0.5%, while by 2020 they are expected to fall by 2%.

The new demographic data once again set off a wave of discussion in China. Whether one admits it or not, what matters is that the country's demographic boom has ended and an aging society is approaching. It is truly a turning point. China has to readjust its population planning — to change from a society that restricted reproduction to a society that is friendly to reproductive rights. This is not easy. After all, we have lived in a context where for 40 years people were obliged to believe that "one child is best", with a huge family planning system supporting this rhetoric. This discourse was inculcated into the consciousness of everyone. This historical legacy needs to be properly addressed.

Huang Wenzheng, a demography expert, pointed out that textbooks for primary and secondary schools should be re-examined, exchanging the propaganda on restricting fertility with respect for life and safeguarding of reproductive rights. It is indeed a detail that requires particular attention in structuring a childbearing-friendly society.

A misunderstanding of the boundary between individual rights and national needs.

The material and energetic costs of childbearing and of bringing up a child are all magnified today in China compared to the past. Meanwhile there are continuous scandals involving the country's education system. This puts a tremendous pressure on parenting.

When the major responsibility for upbringing falls on the shoulders of women, and men do not share much of their worries, it is an inevitable trend that fewer and fewer babies will be born. It is common to hear that "it is insane to have two kids'.

This is not to mention that going from restricting childbirth to encouraging it is going from one extreme to the other.

All policies are to be based on the respect of individual reproductive rights. People can be guided, but not forced. Authorities shouldn't go from imposing the number of allowed children to bombarding people with how many children they now ought to have.

A few months ago, a scholar suggested that every citizen under forty should be taxed to contribute to a "childbirth fund" in proportion to their yearly wages; only families with at least two children would be subsidized by the fund. This provoked a huge public uproar.

Such thinking results from a misunderstanding of the boundary between individual rights and national needs. To have, or not have, children ought to be built on personal and family wishes. This is basic respect of human rights.

Demographic policy can never operate in isolation. It can work only by constituting a policy network through cooperating with other public policies. For example, education policies are very important. And this is precisely where China is lagging behind. It's an issue policymakers have to examine carefully.

The latest population data released by the National Bureau of Statistics makes us realize that the reform of population planning has come to a crossroads. Timely adjustment is the way forward, while avoiding chaos by capturing what motivates the public's concern is crucial. Only if individuals feel respected in their personal reproductive rights can any policy become effective.

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Green

In Argentina, A Visit To World's Highest Solar Energy Park

With loans and solar panels from China, the massive solar park has been opened a year and is already powering the surrounding areas. Now the Chinese supplier is pushing for an expansion.

960,000 solar panels have been installed at the Cauchari park

Silvia Naishtat

CAUCHARI — Driving across the border with Chile into the northwest Argentine department of Susques, you may spot what looks like a black mass in the distance. Arriving at a 4,000-meter altitude in the municipality of Cauchari, what comes into view instead is an assembly of 960,000 solar panels. It is the world's highest photovoltaic (PV) park, which is also the second biggest solar energy facility in Latin America, after Mexico's Aguascalientes plant.

Spread over 800 hectares in an arid landscape, the Cauchari park has been operating for a year, and has so far turned sunshine into 315 megawatts of electricity, enough to power the local provincial capital of Jujuy through the national grid.


It has also generated some $50 million for the province, which Governor Gerardo Morales has allocated to building 239 schools.

Abundant sunshine, low temperatures

The physicist Martín Albornoz says Cauchari, which means "link to the sun," is exposed to the best solar radiation anywhere. The area has 260 days of sunshine, with no smog and relatively low temperatures, which helps keep the panels in optimal conditions.

Its construction began with a loan of more than $331 million from China's Eximbank, which allowed the purchase of panels made in Shanghai. They arrived in Buenos Aires in 2,500 containers and were later trucked a considerable distance to the site in Cauchari . This was a titanic project that required 1,200 builders and 10-ton cranes, but will save some 780,000 tons of CO2 emissions a year.

It is now run by 60 technicians. Its panels, with a 25-year guarantee, follow the sun's path and are cleaned twice a year. The plant is expected to have a service life of 40 years. Its choice of location was based on power lines traced in the 1990s to export power to Chile, now fed by the park.

Chinese engineers working in an office at the Cauchari park

Xinhua/ZUMA

Chinese want to expand

The plant belongs to the public-sector firm Jemse (Jujuy Energía y Minería), created in 2011 by the province's then governor Eduardo Fellner. Jemse's president, Felipe Albornoz, says that once Chinese credits are repaid in 20 years, Cauchari will earn the province $600 million.

The Argentine Energy ministry must now decide on the park's proposed expansion. The Chinese would pay in $200 million, which will help install 400,000 additional panels and generate enough power for the entire province of Jujuy.

The park's CEO, Guillermo Hoerth, observes that state policies are key to turning Jujuy into a green province. "We must change the production model. The world is rapidly cutting fossil fuel emissions. This is a great opportunity," Hoerth says.

The province's energy chief, Mario Pizarro, says in turn that Susques and three other provincial districts are already self-sufficient with clean energy, and three other districts would soon follow.

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