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China 2.0

Sino-Dependency? Brazilian Oil Exports To China Surge

The world's second-largest economy is now Brazil's top customer for oil, but also its most important buyer of soybeans, iron ore and cellulose.

Sino-Dependency? Brazilian Oil Exports To China Surge
Renata Agostini and Alvaro Fagundes

SAO PAULO — Chinese imports of Brazilian oil have increased more than threefold this year, turning Beijing into Brazil's best customer for crude. Perhaps unsurprisingly, this spectacular upsurge comes as oil giant Petrobras is bolstering its ties to China to secure crucial investment. In the past month alone, the state-owned company received $7 billion in credit from Chinese banks.

Between January and May 2015, Brazil sent 5.4 million tons of oil to the Asian country. That's 35% of all Brazilian exports during that period, and the biggest purchase made by any country. By comparison, the United States, the biggest importer of Brazilian oil last year, only bought half of what China did in the first five months of 2015.

This sudden boom helped Brazil's oil sales reach a new record high, 80% more than for the same period last year. But revenues are nonetheless down because the per-barrel price of oil has fallen 40% over the last 12 months.

The trend is also significant because it's not limited to oil, and it increases Brazil's reliance on Chinese demand in general. The world's second-largest economy is now Brazil's best customer for four of the country's 10 top export products, after becoming the most important buyer of soybeans, iron ore and cellulose.

The beginning of a beautiful friendship

Trade between Brazil and China began to grow in the last decade but only boomed when prices of basic products rose worldwide. Back in 2000, exports to the Chinese market amounted to little more than $1 billion. Last year, they topped $40 billion, driven by soybeans and ore.

Beijing started taking an interest in Brazilian oil in 2009. That year, while then-President Lula da Silva was visiting, the country freed up $10 billion to invest in Petrobras through the China Development Bank. The loan came together with an agreement to provide oil to China's Sinopec, which owns refineries across the country, for the next 10 years.

The next year, Chinese companies started to establish themselves in Brazil. Sinopec invested in energy company Repsol's Brazilian branch while Sinochem — another Chinese state-owned company — acquired 40% of Brazil's Peregrino offshore oil field from Norway's Statoil.

China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) and CNPC, also controlled by Beijing, followed in their footsteps in 2013 when they participated in a worldwide consortium to explore the Libra oil field, which lies deep in the Atlantic under a thick layer of salt, about 200 kilometers off Rio de Janeiro. Both companies hold 10% in the consortium while the operator Petrobras controls 40%.

This year, amid a massive corruption scandal, Petrobras once again turned to Beijing to ask for money. Two loans for a total of $7 billion were approved to rescue the Brazilian company.

"This suggests that more Brazilian oil will travel to Asia," says Virendra Chauhan, an analyst for British consultancy company Energy Aspects. "Considering the financing difficulties Petrobras is facing, Brazil has no choice but to turn to China for more loans in exchange for more oil."

Oil represented a mere 0.5% of all Brazilian exports to China, in terms of value, 15 years ago. That figure now stands at 13%. And counting.

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Should Christians Be Scared Of Horror Movies?

Horror films have a complicated and rich history with christian themes and influences, but how healthy is it for audiences watching?

Should Christians Be Scared Of Horror Movies?

"The Nun II" was released on Sept. 2023.

Joseph Holmes

“The Nun II” has little to show for itself except for its repetitive jump scares — but could it also be a danger to your soul?

Christians have a complicated relationship with the horror genre. On the one hand, horror movies are one of the few types of Hollywood films that unapologetically treat Christianity (particularly Catholicism) as good.

“The Exorcist” remains one of the most successful and acclaimed movies of all time. More recently, “The Conjuring” franchise — about a wholesome husband and wife duo who fight demons for the Catholic Church in the 1970s and related spinoffs about the monsters they’ve fought — has more reverent references to Jesus than almost any movie I can think of in recent memory (even more than many faith-based films).

The Catholic film critic Deacon Steven Greydanus once mentioned that one of the few places where you can find substantial positive Catholic representation was inhorror films.

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