Geopolitics

Our Simmering Beef With Meat — Rise Of The Flexitarians

It causes cancer, harms the planet and is cruel to animals, which is why meat consumption has steadily declined in the West. Some have become vegetarians or even vegans, but there is one much more modest alternative that is spreading.

 in At the Yaguane Meat Processing Plant Cooperative in Argentina.
in At the Yaguane Meat Processing Plant Cooperative in Argentina.
Frank Niedercorn

PARIS â€" What is the future for beef bourguignon? A month ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) warned that eating red meat causes cancer. A few weeks earlier, a slaughterhouse in the southern French town of Alès closed down after the release of a troubling video of its operations. And last year, the whole of Europe was scandalized by revelations that certain ready-made meals contained horse meat. That's to say nothing of the mad cow disease episode in the 1990s.

After a steady increase after World War II, meat consumption in France reached a peak in 1998, when the average person ate 94 kilograms (207 lbs) of it per year. The consumption decline has been continuous since then, according to FranceAgriMer, which is affiliated with the French Ministry of Agriculture. Specifically, people are eating much less beef and pork, though consumption of poultry has doubled. Other European countries have undergone similar evolutions.

The question is whether the trend will continue, and will we all become vegetarians or "flexitarians"? U.S. food columnist Mark Bittman coined the term, which he defines are someone who deliberately reduces meat consumption.

"We sometimes call it part-time vegetarianism," notes Céline Laisney, an analyst who heads a study about the trend's growth. Vegetarians represent a small minority of the population, but 32% of European consumers say they would like to buy less meat. There are significant differences from one end of Europe to the other: the percentage reaches 50% in the Czech Republic, but it falls to 11% in Belgium.

A U.S. study shows that meat consumption increases with higher living standards, before decreasing after a certain limit â€" estimated at $37,000 per person per year. This disaffection isn't due to chance. Already criticized for its negative health effects, we know now too that meat production is terrible for the planet, given its water demands, greenhouse gas emissions and the heavy consumption of vegetable protein to feed animals.

Veggie burger craze

Young companies, such as Beyond Meat or Quorn, are looking to make the most of this new defiance towards meat by offering alternative products made from cereal. In France, Nutrition & Santé has just launched Grill Végétal, products made from soy or wheat but packed to look like steaks or nuggets. The supermarket chain Carrefour has launched a series of products called "Carrefour Veggie â€" Vegetarian cooking."

"The whole challenge is to obtain a texture that is sufficiently firm and close to meat, which is often lacking in these kinds of products," explains Anne Wagner, who runs the research and development arm of cooperative Tereos, which is investing in its Alsace factory to produce up to 10,000 meatless "sausages," "burgers" and "steaks" per year.

The notion of vegetal meat, though, has its skeptics, including Pierre Feillet, a research director at the French National Institute of Agricultural Research. "It's an error and a way to mislead the consumer, who knows anyway that he's being lied to," he says. "We need to work on new products."

Even vegetarians are on the fence, says Elodie Vieille-Blanchard, president of the French Vegetarian Association, which counts 5,000 members. "The vegetal steak may be proof that there are alternatives to meat, but this gives a very restrictive image of vegetarian cuisine."

The wine example

Whatever our eating habits may be, the consumption of animal proteins in the world will grow overall until 2050, chiefly because of population growth. Also, though meat consumption may be declining in developed countries, it will continue to grow in developing countries. "With about 9 billion people on the planet in the mid-century, the planet will have a serious problem if every country follows the development model of the OECD countries," says Marion Guillou, head of the French Agronomical, Veterinarian and Forest Institute.

So should livestock farming stay or go? Vegetarians, vegans and many environmentalists believe it's a blight not only on our health but on our planet. An absolute end to meat-eating, however, may not be the answer. "One billion farmers make a living from this in the world," saus Guillou. "Not to mention that these animals provide services, from pulling to the use of excretions, wool, leather. And what should we do with our pastures without them?"

Perhaps moderation is the solution. "I imagine quite well that there could be an evolution similar to that of wine, with a more occasional and moderate consumption of quality products," says expert Pascale Hebel. Others agree. "The global quality beef market is the logical prospect for French livestock farming," experts Eric Loiselet and Pascal Perez wrote in an August column for Les Echos. "Tomorrow, the whole world's middle classes will consume 5 kilos of quality meat per year. It is preferable for our farmers to place themselves in this niche, rather than keep on supplying 50 kilos of cull cow subsidized by the French taxpayers."

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Geopolitics

Iran-Saudi Arabia Rivalry May Be Set To Ease, Or Get Much Worse

The Saudis may be awaiting the outcome of Iran's nuclear talks with the West, to see whether Tehran will moderate its regional policies, or lash out like never before.

Military parade in Tehran, Iran, on Oct. 3

-Analysis-

LONDON — The Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Saeed Khatibzadeh said earlier this month that Iranian and Saudi negotiators had so far had four rounds of "continuous" talks, though both sides had agreed to keep them private. The talks are to ease fraught relations between Iran's radical Shia regime and the Saudi kingdom, a key Western ally in the Middle East.

Iran's Foreign Minister Hossein Amirabdollahian has said that the talks were going in the right direction, while an Iranian trade official was recently hopeful these might even allow trade opportunities for Iranian businessmen in Saudi Arabia. As the broadcaster France 24 observed separately, it will take more than positive signals to heal a five-year-rift and decades of mutual suspicions.


Agence France-Presse news agency, meanwhile, has cited an unnamed French diplomat as saying that Saudi Arabia wants to end its costly discord with Tehran. The sides may already have agreed to reopen consular offices. For Saudi Arabia, the costs include its war on Iran-backed Houthis rebels fighting an UN-recognized government in next-door Yemen.

The role of the nuclear pact

Bilateral relations were severed in January 2016, after regime militiamen stormed the Saudi embassy in Tehran. Amirabdollahian was then the deputy foreign minister for Arab affairs. In 2019, he told the website Iranian Diplomacy that Saudi Arabia had taken measures vis-a-vis Iran's nuclear pact with the world powers.

It's unlikely Ali Khamenei will tolerate the Saudi kingdom's rising power in the region.

He said "the Saudis' insane conduct toward [the pact] led them to conclude that they must prevent [its implementation] in a peaceful environment ... I think the Saudis are quite deluded, and their delusion consists in thinking that Trump is an opportunity for them to place themselves on the path of conflict with the Islamic Republic while relying on Trump." He meant the administration led by the U.S. President Donald J.Trump, which was hostile to Iran's regime. This, he said, "is not how we view Saudi Arabia. I think Yemen should have been a big lesson for the Saudis."

The minister was effectively admitting the Houthis were the Islamic Republic's tool for getting back at Saudi Arabia.

Yet in the past two years, both sides have taken steps to improve relations, without firm results as yet. Nor is the situation likely to change this time.

Photo of Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei in 2020

Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei in 2020

commons.wikimedia.org

Riyadh's warming relations with Israel

Iran's former ambassador in Lebanon, Ahmad Dastmalchian, told the ILNA news agency in Tehran that Saudi Arabia is doing Israel's bidding in the region, and has "entrusted its national security, and life and death to Tel Aviv." Riyadh, he said, had been financing a good many "security and political projects in the region," or acting as a "logistical supplier."

The United States, said Dastmalchian, has "in turn tried to provide intelligence and security backing, while Israel has simply followed its own interests in all this."

Furthermore, it seems unlikely Iran's Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei will tolerate, even in this weak period of his leadership, the kingdom's rising power in the region and beyond, and especially its financial clout. He is usually disparaging when he speaks of Riyadh's princely rulers. In 2017, he compared them to "dairy cows," saying, "the idiots think that by giving money and aid, they can attract the goodwill of Islam's enemies."

Iranian regime officials are hopeful of moving toward better diplomatic ties and a reopening of embassies. Yet the balance of power between the sides began to change in Riyadh's favor years ago. For the kingdom's power has shifted from relying mostly on arms, to economic and political clout. The countries might have had peaceful relations before in considerably quieter, and more equitable, conditions than today's acute clash of interests.

If nuclear talks break down, Iran's regime may become more aggressive.

Beyond this, the Abraham Accord or reconciliation of Arab states and Israel has been possible thanks to the green light that the Saudis gave their regional partners, and it is a considerable political and ideological defeat for the Islamic Republic.

Assuming all Houthis follow Tehran's instructions — and they may not — improved ties may curb attacks on Saudi interests and aid its economy. Tehran will also benefit from no longer having to support them. Unlike Iran's regime, the Saudis are not pressed for cash or resources and could even offer the Houthis a better deal. Presently, they may consider it more convenient to keep the softer approach toward Tehran.

For if nuclear talks with the West break down, Iran's regime may become more aggressive, and as experience has shown, tensions often prompt a renewal of missile or drone attacks on the Saudis, on tankers and on foreign shipping. Riyadh must have a way of keeping the Tehran regime quiet, in a distinctly unquiet time.

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