food / travel
September 27, 2015
PARIS â€" What will French and European vineyards look like by 2050? American scientists startled wine professionals two years ago when they concluded in an article that the surface areas adapted to vineyards could diminish by 25% to 75% in the nine major regions of the global production.
Their European, and especially French, counterparts were quick to criticize what they saw as an â€œalarmist visionâ€ and methodological errors. â€œOur colleagues mostly forgot that vine-growing has always been used to adapting,â€ says Nathalie Ollat, a research engineer from the French National Institute of Agricultural Research (INRA) in Bordeaux.
Adapting is the focus of the Laccave project, a coalition of 23 laboratories and teams from different disciplines studying the long-term impact and adaptation to climate change in viticulture and oenology. One of them, associated with France Agrimer and the National Institute of Origin and Quality (INAO) engaged in a forecasting exercise and developed four possible scenarios for what might happen by 2050.
"This period is transitional," says Jean-Marc Touzard, an INRA innovation specialist from Montpellier. "We know that, by then, the average temperature should have risen by one or two degrees. Beyond this, we can go towards a stabilization if we reduce our greenhouse gas emissions very soon. Otherwise, the rise in temperatures will carry on."
These scientists haven't yet finished their work, but they have already put forward some theories. The first scenario is what might happen with inaction. There would be a possible multiplication of illnesses, vines suffering from a lack of water, a dramatic decrease in yields and a strong decline in quality. "This scenario, however, seems somewhat unlikely, precisely because the world of viticulture has always been able to adapt," Touzard says.
Another extreme scenario: a complete liberalization of the global viticulture sector, which would move nearer to "the beer market." It would be a world where "everything is allowed," in which Protected Designations of Origin would be shattered, marketing would become the priority and major operators would stock up according to their needs.
Even more iconoclastic, the third scenario imagines "nomadic" vineyards: Designated vineyards would exist, but only for a few dozen years, enough time to make the most of a climate and favorable conditions.
Wine tasting in the south of France â€" Photo: Christine und Hagen Graf
But Laccave project scientists believe the final scenario is more likely, that in 2050, the major vineyards will still be there, thanks to having adapted via innovation. Before the means to prepare for this exist, vineyards are already experimenting. â€œA few years ago, we plucked the leaves of the vines to let them make the most of the sun," explains Stéphane Toutoundji, an oenologist and co-founder of the Oeno Team. "Now, weâ€™re doing rather the opposite by looking to protect it."
More will be required, for instance, by exploiting the knowledge of every vineyard to the fullest. â€œOn one designation, and even on one estate, the average temperature differences can vary by two degrees," explains Hervé Quénol, from the climatology laboratory at the University of Rennes. "That corresponds to the variation due to climate change."
As part of the European project Adviclim, several vineyards â€" Navarre, Romania, Rhin, Val de Loire, Saint Emilion â€" have been populated with temperature sensors in order to diagnose climatic evolutions on a very specific scale.
Instead of irrigation, seen as an â€œultimate solution,â€ the best adaptation could come from genetics, with new varieties that ripen more slowly, are more resistant to heat and illnesses. â€œIn parallel, the main goal is to reduce the phytosanitary treatments,â€ Ollat says.
Already existing varieties of grapes, more adapted to a warming climate, can be used. It will be complicated in the Bourgogne region, where only pinot noir is cultivated. Not so much in Languedoc-Roussillon and even less in Bordeaux, where blending different varieties of grapes is a practice as old as wine-growing.
Through the Vitadapt project, the INRA is studying 52 different varieties of grapes planted on the same plot, a first in the world. The results are promising and would make it possible to find an alternative to Bordeauxâ€™s most famous variety of grapes: the Merlot, which takes more than 60% of the vineyard, and is known for its fruity aromas, but also for its ability to ripen prematurely, a serious handicap for the years to come.
The solution could be local, with the Petit Verdot, a regional, rarely used variety of grapes, says Kees Van Leeuwen, a wine-growing professor at the University of Bordeaux, which supervises the Vitadapt project. "It combines the taste qualities of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, while reaching maturity later." The same is true for white wines and the Colombard variety of grapes, which would provide an alternative for the white Sauvignon.
What next? Beyond 2040, the Bordeaux region could make eyes at one of the many Portuguese varieties of grapes, the scientists agree. The country indeed offers a similar oceanic climate, though it's warmer by a few degrees. Around 2050, the Touriga Nacional could, for instance, replace Merlot on many plots. At that time, the list of French wines will have evolved significantly, Touzard predicts.
"The major vineyards will still be there, but weâ€™ll see local initiatives multiplying. I wouldnâ€™t be surprised to see vines in Brittany, in the North region or in altitude. And why not in town.â€ Same thing on a global level, where vineyards will appear in northern regions. Some even predict that the current English vineyard will become an effervescent paradise for wine.
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Anne-Sophie Goninet, Jane Herbelin and Bertrand Hauger
October 22, 2021
Welcome to Friday, where Joe Biden vows to protect Taiwan from China, Alec Baldwin accidentally kills a cinematographer, and can you guess what day it is TODAY? We also have a report from a researcher in San Diego, USA on the sociological dark side of food trucks.
[*Zdravo - Macedonian]
Iran-Saudi Arabia rivalry may be set to ease, or get much worse
The Saudis may be awaiting the outcome of Iran's nuclear talks with the West, to see whether Tehran will moderate its regional policies, or lash out like never before, writes Persian-language media Kayhan-London:
The Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Saeed Khatibzadeh said earlier this month that Iranian and Saudi negotiators had so far had four rounds of "continuous" talks, though both sides had agreed to keep them private. The talks are to ease fraught relations between Iran's radical Shia regime and the Saudi kingdom, a key Western ally in the Middle East.
Iran's Foreign Minister Hossein Amirabdollahian has said that the talks were going in the right direction, while an Iranian trade official was recently hopeful these might even allow trade opportunities for Iranian businessmen in Saudi Arabia. As the broadcaster France 24 observed separately, it will take more than positive signals to heal a five-year-rift and decades of mutual suspicions.
Agence France-Presse news agency, meanwhile, has cited an unnamed French diplomat as saying that Saudi Arabia wants to end its costly discord with Tehran. The sides may already have agreed to reopen consular offices. For Saudi Arabia, the costs include its war on Iran-backed Houthis rebels fighting an UN-recognized government in next-door Yemen.
Bilateral relations were severed in January 2016, after regime militiamen stormed the Saudi embassy in Tehran. Amirabdollahian was then the deputy foreign minister for Arab affairs. In 2019, he told the website Iranian Diplomacy that Saudi Arabia had taken measures vis-a-vis Iran's nuclear pact with the world powers.
He said "the Saudis' insane conduct toward [the pact] led them to conclude that they must prevent [its implementation] in a peaceful environment ... I think the Saudis are quite deluded, and their delusion consists in thinking that Trump is an opportunity for them to place themselves on the path of conflict with the Islamic Republic while relying on Trump." He meant the administration led by the U.S. President Donald J.Trump, which was hostile to Iran's regime. This, he said, "is not how we view Saudi Arabia. I think Yemen should have been a big lesson for the Saudis."
The minister was effectively admitting the Houthis were the Islamic Republic's tool for getting back at Saudi Arabia.
Yet in the past two years, both sides have taken steps to improve relations, without firm results as yet. Nor is the situation likely to change this time.
Iran's former ambassador in Lebanon, Ahmad Dastmalchian, told the ILNA news agency in Tehran that Saudi Arabia is doing Israel's bidding in the region, and has "entrusted its national security, and life and death to Tel Aviv." Riyadh, he said, had been financing a good many "security and political projects in the region," or acting as a "logistical supplier."
The United States, said Dastmalchian, has "in turn tried to provide intelligence and security backing, while Israel has simply followed its own interests in all this."
Furthermore, it seems unlikely Iran's Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei will tolerate, even in this weak period of his leadership, the kingdom's rising power in the region and beyond, and especially its financial clout. He is usually disparaging when he speaks of Riyadh's princely rulers. In 2017, he compared them to "dairy cows," saying, "the idiots think that by giving money and aid, they can attract the goodwill of Islam's enemies."
Iranian regime officials are hopeful of moving toward better diplomatic ties and a reopening of embassies. Yet the balance of power between the sides began to change in Riyadh's favor years ago. For the kingdom's power has shifted from relying mostly on arms, to economic and political clout. The countries might have had peaceful relations before in considerably quieter, and more equitable, conditions than today's acute clash of interests.
Beyond this, the Abraham Accord or reconciliation of Arab states and Israel has been possible thanks to the green light that the Saudis gave their regional partners, and it is a considerable political and ideological defeat for the Islamic Republic.
Assuming all Houthis follow Tehran's instructions — and they may not — improved ties may curb attacks on Saudi interests and aid its economy. Tehran will also benefit from no longer having to support them. Unlike Iran's regime, the Saudis are not pressed for cash or resources and could even offer the Houthis a better deal. Presently, they may consider it more convenient to keep the softer approach toward Tehran.
For if nuclear talks with the West break down, Iran's regime may become more aggressive, and as experience has shown, tensions often prompt a renewal of missile or drone attacks on the Saudis, on tankers and on foreign shipping. Riyadh must have a way of keeping the Tehran regime quiet, in a distinctly unquiet time.
🌎 7 THINGS TO KNOW RIGHT NOW
• Biden vows to defend Taiwan: U.S. President Joe Biden said the United States would come to Taiwan's defense if it were attacked and had a commitment to defend the island nation that China claims as its own. The White House clarified for the second time in three months that U.S. policy on the subject has not changed, and declined further comment when asked if Biden had misspoken.
• Call on China to respect Uyghurs: A statement from 43 countries denounced China's human rights record at the United Nations over the reported torture and repression of the mostly Muslim Uyghurs, as well as the existence of "re-education camps" in Xinjiang. The declaration calls on Beijing to allow independent observers immediate access. In response, Cuba issued a rival statement shortly afterwards on behalf of 62 other countries claiming "disinformation".
• Alec Baldwin fires prop gun, kills cinematographer: U.S. actor Alec Baldwin fatally shot cinematographer Halyna Hutchins and injured director Joel Souza after discharging a prop gun on the set of his new movie, near Santa Fe. The accident is being investigated.
• Berlusconi acquitted: Former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi was acquitted of judicial corruption charges. The 85-year-old media mogul had been accused of seeking to bribe guests present at his infamous "Bunga Bunga" parties to lie about the evenings as part of an underage prostitution case.
• COVID health workers death toll: A new WHO working report estimates that between 80,000 and 180,000 health and care workers may have died from COVID-19 between January 2020 and May 2021. The same report also noted that fewer than 1 in 10 healthcare workers were fully vaccinated in Africa, compared with 9 in 10 in high-income countries, and less than 5% of Africa's population have been vaccinated.
• Seven killed in Russian gunpowder factory blast: An explosion at the Elastik gunpowder and chemicals plant southeast of Moscow killed at least seven people, while nine are still missing.
• Aye aye, CAP'n: HAPPY CAPS LOCK DAY, FOLKS!
🗞️ FRONT PAGE
Dutch daily De Volkskrant pays tribute to "sound master" and renowned classical conductor Bernard Haitink, who died at 92. Born in Amsterdam, Haitink made more than 450 records and led some of the world's top orchestras in the span of his 65-year career.
📰 STORY OF THE DAY
The food truck, a sign that the white and wealthy are moving in
In San Diego, California, researcher Pascale Joassart-Marcelli tracked how in the city's low-income neighborhoods that have traditionally lacked dining options, when interesting eateries arrive the gentrification of white, affluent and college-educated people has begun. In The Conversation she writes:
🥡 In 2016 in City Heights, a large multi-ethnic San Diego neighborhood, a dusty vacant lot on the busiest boulevard was converted into an outdoor international marketplace called Fair@44. There, food vendors gather in semi-permanent stalls to sell pupusas, lechon (roasted pig), single-sourced cold-brewed coffee, cupcakes and tamarind raspado (crushed ice). Just a few blocks outside the gates, informal street vendors — who have long sold goods such as fruit, tamales and ice cream to residents who can't easily access supermarkets — now face heightened harassment.
🤑 Cities and neighborhoods have long sought to attract educated and affluent residents – people whom sociologist Richard Florida dubbed "the creative class." The thinking goes that these newcomers will spend their dollars and presumably contribute to economic growth and job creation. Food, it seems, has become the perfect lure. It's uncontroversial and has broad appeal. It taps into the American Dream and appeals to the multicultural values of many educated, wealthy foodies.
🏙️ My analysis of real estate ads for properties listed in City Heights and other gentrifying San Diego neighborhoods found that access to restaurants, cafés, farmers markets and outdoor dining is a common selling point. San Diego Magazine's home buyer guide for the same year identified City Heights as an "up-and-coming neighborhood," attributing its appeal to its diverse population and eclectic "culinary landscape," including several restaurants and Fair@44. When I see that City Heights' home prices rose 58% over the past three years, I'm not surprised.
➡️ Read more on Worldcrunch.com
#️⃣ BY THE NUMBERS
The remains of "Big John," the world's largest triceratops skeleton ever found, were sold at auction for a European record price of 6.65 millions euros in Paris to a private anonymous collector from the U.S. The 200 pieces of the skeleton were unearthed in 2014 in South Dakota and reassembled by specialists in Italy.
👮🎮 IN OTHER NEWS
Police bust Mexican drug gang recruiting boys via online video games
Police in Mexico have intervened to rescue three minors, aged 11 to 14, from recruitment into a drug gang that had enticed them through online gaming.
A top Mexican police agency official Ricardo Mejía Berdeja, said the gang had contacted the youths in the south-central city of Oaxaca, chatting through a free-to-download game called Free Fire, which involves shooting at rivals with virtual firearms.
Calling himself "Rafael," another player of the same age, the suspected gang member offered one of the youths work "checking radio frequencies and watching out for police presence" in Monterrey, northern Mexico, reported national daily El Heraldo de México. The pay was unusually good — 8,000 pesos (almost $400) every two weeks — and the youth called two friends who also wanted to get in.
The three boys were set to take the bait, but an anonymous Mexican intelligence agent following the exchange while also posing as youth playing Free Fire, ultimately led police to a safe house in Santa Lucía del Camino, outside Oaxaca.
➡️ Read more on Worldcrunch.com
"I just want to make China understand that we are not going to step back."
— U.S. President Joe Biden vowed to defend Taiwan if it came under attack from China, an assertion that seems to move away from the U.S. stated policy of "strategic ambiguity." His administration is now facing calls to clarify this stance on the island.
📸 PHOTO DU JOUR
Paramilitary soldiers are conducting a check operation in Indian-administered Kashmir, following a spate of targeted attacks on the region's Hindu minority that have left at least 33 dead since early October. The region, claimed in full by both India and Pakistan, has been the site of a bloody armed rebellion against India since the 1990s — Photo: Adil Abbas/ZUMA
✍️ Newsletter by Anne-Sophie Goninet, Jane Herbelin and Bertrand Hauger
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