Green Or Gone

Three Highways In The Amazon And Dilemmas Of Deforestation

Plans to build highways through the Amazon rainforest are clear violations of pledges made in Paris to end deforestation by 2020. But the situation on the ground is not a one-way street.

Along Brazil's Trans-Amazonia highway
Helena Calle

-Analysis-

BOGOTÁ — In 2015, all Latin American countries except Chile and Ecuador signed the Paris climate pact, vowing to cut carbon emissions and end deforestation. But since then, the realities on the ground tell a different story. A report by Amazon Geo-Referenced Socio-Environmental Information Network (RAISG) found that highways built in the past 10 years have helped boost human activities like mining, settlement, farming, logging and hydrocarbon exploration. Some 96,500 kilometers of roads, including 520 highways, have been built since the first big infrastructure project in the region — the Manaos-to-Mamoré railway. This occurred during the rubber boom between 1890 and 1920. Such projects have cut their way, legally and illegally, through the world's biggest expanse of tropical rainforest.

The majority of these roads are dust tracks — red for the color of Amazon's soil — intended to connect forest settlements to bigger centers in the Andean region. Their construction has caused the destruction of 238,000 square kilometers of virgin rainforest. Zooming in on three cases in Bolivia, Peru and Colombia shows the social, technical and legal difficulties in ending deforestation.

Roadblock in Bolivia

Bolivia's socialist President Evo Morales vowed on Aug. 13 to "take progress to" local communities. He was announcing the end of a law that protects the Indigenous Territory of the Isiboro Sécure National Park (TIPNIS) to allow for the construction of a 30-kilometer stretch of road linking the province of Chapare, a key coca producing region, to the Amazonian town of San Ignacio de Moxos. The road will cross 12,300 square kilometers of protected territory that is home to about 14,000 people — the Moxeños (or Mojeños), Yurakarés, Chimanes — and 1,500 forest species.

The decision adopted by Bolivia's parliament rescinds a previous law from 2011, which had declared TIPNIS an "untouchable" natural area. Its protection referred to a study by the country's Foundation for Strategic Investigations that had concluded that a highway in this location would increase current deforestation in the park by 64% over 15 years.

Illustration of the road crossing the TIPNIS — Photo: Ainnoticias.Org/Handout/DPA/ZUMA

The speaker of parliament, Gabriela Montaño, recently told a television program that the park's "untouchable" status is being lifted after a consultation was duly held with native communities in 2013, even as some communities insisted they voted no or abstained. Amnesty International observed in 2012 that the government had never really consulted locals about its plans but, rather, advanced them through piecemeal legislation.

The highway is expected to support coca farming, which as Bolivia's national parks service (Sernap) warned in 2011, would entail spraying chemical fertilizers to boost the soil.

Locals divided in Peru

In February 2016, a drone flown by Peruvian environmental authorities spotted a 21-kilometer yellowish scar cutting across the green canopy in Madre de Dios, in the southern part of Peru's Amazonas department. It extends from an existing 12-km stretch built illegally by the governor of Madre de Dios, Luis Otsuka, who faces prosecution for the destruction of 32 square kilometers of forest — an area the size of 44 soccer fields.

The website Ojo Público calls the road a new corridor that will facilitate the transportation of illegally cut timber and the movement of gold miners and drug traffickers in Manu National Park and the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve. The latter is already threatened by legal and illegal mining and concessions on its southeastern fringes. It encompasses the ancestral lands of the Harambukt, the Yine or Piro and Machinguenga peoples. The area's 402,000 hectares are policed by just two state prosecutors and 12 guards who, quite simply, are overwhelmed by their Herculean duties.

Satellite image showing the progress of the highway from Shipetiari to Boca Manu — Photo: ACA/ACCA/Ojo Público

If trafficking and mining were barely checked before, the highway will open the gates to more traffickers, while money from oil companies here is already sowing discord among indigenous communities.

In 2009, representatives of Hunt Oil and the presidents of eight communities of the Amarakaeri reserve met for talks, after which five local communities stated their opposition to the company and to road building, and three said they favored a road, as it would help them trade chestnuts, yucca and bananas. The firm's $30,000 compensation settlement with some native leaders then provoked a rift that has yet to be resolved.

Ojo Público estimates that the road, if built as the Madre de Dios authorities intend to, will destroy 43,000 hectares of rainforest by 2040. Legal action against the governor is not expected to stop construction.

Colombian dilemma

Construction began 30 years ago on the road that has become a bone of contention between state agencies and the people living between Calamar and Miraflores in southern Colombia. The pathway grew as locals and leftist FARC guerrillas added portions to it, becoming the 138-km track seen today. Locals want the road promised by the government of the Guaviare department but the Corporation for the Sustainable Development of the Northern and Eastern Amazon (CDA), an environmental agency, and other green groups, oppose it. The only consensus is that the 5,000 people living in Miraflores cannot be left in isolation.

Turning this track into a proper road will mean cutting up a forest reserve. In 2016, CDA intervened when locals witnessed heavy machinery working on stretches of the road. After El Espectador reported the incident, the agency ruled there would be no more work on the 90-km stretch leading to Miraflores.

Such projects have cut their way, legally and illegally, through the world's biggest expanse of tropical rainforest.

The head of public works for Guaviare, Ramiro Álvarez, says the department's transportation needs and stemming rising costs take precedence. But deforestation is already a problem in Guaviare, and a paved road to Miraflores would make it worse. A report by IDEAM, a government pollution monitoring system, found that 11,456 hectares of woodland were lost in Guaviare in 2015 and 2016 to activities such as illegal cultivation and logging.

Roberto Gómez, a director of the NGO Fundación Natura, says he could live with an unpaved road here but logging around it should be banned. Other experts have suggested a combination of means including air and river transport to keep Miraflores linked to the rest of the department.

For César Tobón, a former member of parliament who farms rubber, palm fruit, yucca and bananas on local land, "seeing this main road is a utopia. This road has been in place for so many years now. The only thing it needs is upkeep to improve our lives."

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Thousands of migrants in Del Rio, Texas, on the border between Mexico and the U.S.

Hannah Steinkopf-Frank, Bertrand Hauger and Anne-Sophie Goninet

👋 Сайн уу*

Welcome to Friday, where the new U.S.-UK-Australia security pact is under fire, Italy becomes the first country to make COVID-19 "green pass" mandatory for all workers, and Prince Philip's will is to be kept secret for 90 years. From Russia, we also look at the government censorship faced by brands that recently tried to promote multiculturalism and inclusiveness in their ads.

[*Sain uu - Mongolian]

🌎  7 THINGS TO KNOW RIGHT NOW

• U.S. facing multiple waves of migrants, refugees: The temporary camp, located between Mexico's Ciudad Acuña and Del Rio in Texas, is housing some 10,000 people, largely from Haiti. With few resources, they are forced to wait in squalid conditions and scorching temperatures amidst a surge of migrants attempting to cross into the U.S. Meanwhile, thousands of recently evacuated Afghan refugees wait in limbo at U.S. military bases, both domestic and abroad.

• COVID update: Italy is now the first European country to require vaccination for all public and private sector workers from Oct. 15. The Netherlands will also implement a "corona pass" in the following weeks for restaurants, bars and cultural spaces. When he gives an opening speech at the United Nations General Assembly next week, unvaccinated Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro will defy New York City authorities, who are requiring jabs for all leaders and diplomats.

• U.S. and UK face global backlash over Australian deal: The U.S. is attempting to diffuse the backlash over the new security pact signed with Australia and the UK, which excludes the European Union. The move has angered France, prompting diplomats to cancel a gala to celebrate ties between the country and the U.S.

• Russian elections: Half of the 450 seats in Duma are will be determined in today's parliamentary race. Despite persistent protests led by imprisoned opposition leader Alexey Navalny, many international monitors and Western governments fear rigged voting will result in President Vladimir Putin's United Russia party maintaining its large majority.

• Somali president halts prime minister's authority: The decision by President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed marks the latest escalation in tensions with Prime Minister Mohamed Hussein Roble concerning a murder investigation. The move comes as the Horn of Africa country has fallen into a political crisis driven by militant violence and clashes between clans.

• Astronauts return to Earth after China's longest space mission: Three astronauts spent 90 days at the Tianhe module and arrived safely in the Gobi desert in Inner Mongolia. The Shenzhou-12 mission is the first of crewed missions China has planned for 2021-2022 as it completes its first permanent space station.

• Prince Philip's will to be kept secret for 90 years: A British court has ruled that the will of Prince Philip, the late husband of Britain's Queen Elizabeth who passed away in April at 99 years old, will remain private for at least 90 years to preserve the monarch's "dignity and standing."

🗞️  FRONT PAGE

With a memorable front-page photo, Argentine daily La Voz reports on the open fight between the country's president Alberto Fernández and vice-president Cristina Kirchner which is paralyzing the government. Kirchner published a letter criticizing the president's administration after several ministers resigned and the government suffered a major defeat in last week's midterm primary election.

#️⃣  BY THE NUMBERS

€150

An Italian investigation uncovered a series of offers on encrypted "dark web" websites offering to sell fake EU COVID vaccine travel documents. Italy's financial police say its units have seized control of 10 channels on the messaging service Telegram linked to anonymous accounts that were offering the vaccine certificates for up to €150. "Through the internet and through these channels, you can sell things everywhere in the world," finance police officer Gianluca Berruti told Euronews.

📰  STORY OF THE DAY

In Russia, brands advertising diversity are under attack

Russian sushi delivery Yobidoyobi removed an advertisement with a Black man and apologized for offending the Russian nation, while a grocery chain was attacked for featuring an LGBTQ couple, reports Moscow-based daily Kommersant.

❌ "On behalf of the entire company, we want to apologize for offending the public with our photos..." reads a recent statement by Russian sushi delivery Yobidoyobi after publishing an advertisement that included a photograph of a Black man. Shortly after, the company's co-founder, Konstantin Zimen, said people on social media were accusing Yobidoyobi of promoting multiculturalism. Another recent case involved grocery store chain VkusVill, which released advertising material featuring a lesbian couple. The company soon began to receive threats and quickly apologized and removed the text and apologized.

🏳️🌈 For the real life family featured in the ad, they have taken refuge in Spain, after their emails and cell phone numbers were leaked. "We were happy to express ourselves as a family because LGBTQ people are often alone and abandoned by their families in Russia," Mila, one of the daughters in the ad, explained in a recent interview with El Pais.

🇷🇺 It is already common in Russia to talk about "spiritual bonds," a common designation for the spiritual foundations that unite modern Russian society, harkening back to the Old Empire as the last Orthodox frontier. The expression has been mocked as an internet meme and is widely used in public rhetoric. For opponents, this meme is a reason for irony and ridicule. Patriots take spiritual bonds very seriously: The government has decided to focus on strengthening these links and the mission has become more important than protecting basic human rights.Russian sushi delivery Yobidoyobi removed an advertisement with a Black man and apologized for offending the Russian nation, while a grocery chain was attacked for featuring an LGBTQ couple, reports Moscow-based daily Kommersant.

➡️ Read more on Worldcrunch.com

📣 VERBATIM

"Ask the rich countries: Where are Africa's vaccines?"

— During an online conference, Dr. Ayoade Olatunbosun-Alakija, of the African Vaccine Delivery Alliance, implored the international community to do more to inoculate people against COVID-19 in Africa and other developing regions. The World Health Organization estimates that only 3.6% of people living in Africa have been fully vaccinated. The continent is home to 17% of the world population, but only 2% of the nearly six billion shots administered so far have been given in Africa, according to the W.H.O.

✍️ Newsletter by Hannah Steinkopf-Frank, Bertrand Hauger and Anne-Sophie Goninet

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