May 02, 2011
DHARAMSALA - Tsering Gyatso knows nothing about Che Guevara. Nevertheless, the iconic image of the bearded Latin American revolutionary is splashed on this young Tibetan monk's T-shirt. When asked if he knows that Che Guevara was a Communist, the 22-year-old opens his eyes in quiet wonder. But Gyatso's puzzled silence does not last long, quickly letting out a hearty laugh at the irony of the situation.
Behind Gyatso, the sun is illuminating the Himalayan foothills of India. Further away, the Dhauladhar mountain range extends in glacial peaks. At this moment Gyatso is at peace. Just as he had dreamed of for years, he has rediscovered his smile.
At the beginning of the year Gyatso fled Lhasa, the capital of Chinese-controlled Tibet. He crossed over illegally to Dharamsala, a small town of the north-Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, after spending two years in jail for participating in protests in Lhasa, where he became a drifter after being expelled from the Sera monastery.
Gyatso was captivated by a dream: to meet the 14th Dalai Lama, the Tibetan religious leader. A man of many names, the Dalai Lama is also known as the "god-king," the reincarnation of Chenrezig, a bodhisattva (enlightened being). In Dharamsala, the capital of Tibetan exiles, the Dalai Lama makes a habit of meeting with all Tibetan refugees arriving on Indian soil.
Gyatso's vision, however, did not play out quite the way he had imagined. Though together with a group of other new arrivals, the young monk did have an opportunity to meet the Dalai Lama, the mood was grim. Several days before, on March 10, the Dalai Lama had announced his retirement from politics, telling his fellow Tibetan exiles it is time they govern themselves. The announcement coincided with the anniversary of the uprising in Lhasa of 1959, when the Dalai Lama first escaped to Dharamsala.
In a historic gesture, the revered Tibetan leader dismantled the institution of the dalai lama, which has played the dual role of both spiritual and political authority since 1642. The dalai lama figure, he decided, will continue to serve as a spiritual authority but relinquish political power to a "freely elected leader." His announcement is nothing less than a revolution – both secular and democratic –in Tibetan politics.
For the young Gyatso, who had just finished his journey through the heart of the icy mountain passes, the announcement came as a shock. "I was very anxious," he said. "My concern was that, alone, we wouldn't be able to continue our battle for a free Tibet."
The Dalai Lama explained that he'd made his decision with the long-term interest of his people in mind. In the end, Gyatso was convinced. "The Dalai Lama is 76-years-old," said Gyatso. "He will not always be by our side. And so we should prepare ourselves now for this reality."
Others in Dharamsala are slower to accept the momentous change. "I didn't sleep well for two nights," confessed Ngawang Norbu, the director of the refugee-welcoming center. In his office, which is adorned with portraits of the Dalai Lama and Gandhi, Norbu recalls joining the exiled administration because the Dalai Lama was leading it. "With him gone, everything will be different. The mission of serving the official institutions of the diaspora could suffer."
At first glance, Dharamsala lives up to its image. The city is perched at 5,577 feet above sea level along a mountainside of pine trees. The neighborhood of Lac Leod Gani, in the heart of the small Tibetan town known as "Little Lhasa," offers a vibrant array of colors. There are steep, winding alleyways with monks in dark red robes, Hindu shopkeepers, beggars holding bowls, and hippies wrapped in colorful wool. This picture postcard is brightened by monkeys hanging from electrical wires and cows nudging at temple doors with their noses.
But behind this tranquil appearance there is a raw emotion – one that's "difficult to explain," admitted Urgen Tenzin, the director of the Tibetan Center for Human Rights and Democracy. The Dalai Lama has been such a vital part of the Tibetan cause for so long that many simply can't imagine how this separation will play out.
One major concern is how the decision will impact future international support. "If people throughout the world know about the Tibetan struggle," said Urgen Tenzin, "it's thanks to the Dalai Lama's charisma. What will happen now to the international response to our cause?"
People are concerned as well that with the Dalai Lama's political absence, his message of non-violence might lose some if its influence. "Without him, I'm afraid that certain Tibetans will stop acting non-violently," warned Sonam Yangchen, a nun originally from Ladakh. Meeting in the famous convent of Ganden Choeling, at the center of a room where dogs with plush fur sit on pink blankets, a young nun with a shaved head adjusts her glasses before asking: "And what if we don't find a competent leader to show us the right way?"
Dolma Gyari, vice-president of the exiled parliament, is also disturbed by the Dalai Lama's decision. "We are in the process of facing one of the biggest challenges in Tibetan history," she said. Like all the Tibetans, she had been aware that the Dalai Lama wanted to retire from politics. Indeed, the "Lord of the White Lotus' made no secret of that desire. Still, his radical decision on March 10 came as a huge shock for many, Gyari included.
"This is beyond our imagination," she said, rubbing tears out of her eyes. "He is the symbol of our national unity, of our civilization!"
Read the original article in French.
Photo - Amitrunchal
This leading French daily newspaper Le Monde ("The World") was founded in December 1944 in the aftermath of World War II. Today, it is distributed in 120 countries. In late 2010, a trio formed by Pierre Berge, Xavier Niel and Matthieu Pigasse took a controlling 64.5% stake in the newspaper.
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food / travel
With Halloween arriving, we have dug up the would-be ghosts of documented evil and bloodshed from the past.
Laure Gautherin and Carl-Johan Karlsson
October 26, 2021
When Hallows Eve was first introduced as a Celtic festival some 2,000 years ago, bonfires and costumes were seen as a legitimate way to ward off ghosts and evil spirits. Today of course, with science and logic being real ghostbusters, spine-chilling tales of haunted forests, abandoned asylums and deserted graveyards have rather become a way to add some mystery and suspense to our lives.
And yet there are still spooky places around the world that have something more than legend attached to them. From Spain to Uzbekistan and Australia, these locations prove that haunting lore is sometimes rooted in very real, and often terrible events.
Shahr-e Gholghola, City of Screams - Afghanistan
The ruins of Shahr-e Gholghola, the City of Screams, in Afghanistan
According to locals, ghosts from this ancient royal citadel located in the Valley of Bamyan, 150 miles northwest of Kabul, have been screaming for 800 years. You can hear them from miles away, at twilight, when they relive their massacre.
In the spring 1221, the fortress built by Buddhist Ghorids in the 6th century became the theater of the final battle between Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire, and the Mongol Horde led by Genghis Khan. It is said that Khan's beloved grandson, Mutakhan, had been killed on his mission to sack Bamyan. To avenge him, the Mongol leader went himself and ordered to kill every living creature in the city, children included.
The ruins today bear the name of Shahr-e Gholghola, meaning City of Screams or City of Sorrows. The archeological site, rich in Afghan history, is open to the public and though its remaining walls stay quiet during the day, locals say that the night brings the echoes of fear and agony. Others claim the place comes back to life eight centuries ago, and one can hear the bustle of the city and people calling each other.
Gettysburg, Civil War battlefield - U.S.
View of the battlefields from Little Round Top, Gettysburg, PA, USA
Even ghosts non-believers agree there is something eerie about Gettysbury. The city in the state of Pennsylvania is now one of the most popular destinations in the U.S. for spirits and paranormal activities sight-seeing; and many visitors report they witness exactly what they came for: sounds of drums and gunshots, spooky encounters and camera malfunctions in one specific spot… just to name a few!
The Battle of Gettysburg, for which President Abraham Lincoln wrote his best known public address, is considered a turning point in the Civil War that led to the Union's victory. It lasted three days, from July 1st to July 3rd, 1863, but it accounts for the worst casualties of the entire conflict, with 23,000 on the Union side (3,100 men killed) and 28,000 for the Confederates (including 3,900 deaths). Thousands of soldiers were buried on the battlefield in mass graves - without proper rites, legend says - before being relocated to the National Military Park Cemetery for the Unionists.
Since then, legend has it, their restless souls wander, unaware the war has ended. You can find them everywhere, on the battlefield or in the town's preserved Inns and hotels turned into field hospitals back then.
Belchite, Civil War massacre - Spain
Old Belchite, Spain
Shy lost souls wandering and briefly appearing in front of visitors, unexplainable forces attracting some to specific places of the town, recorded noises of planes, gunshots and bombs, like forever echoes of a drama which left an open wound in Spanish history…
That wound, still unhealed, is the Spanish Civil War; and at its height in 1937, Belchite village, located in the Zaragoza Province in the northeast of Spain, represented a strategic objective of the Republican forces to take over the nearby capital city of Zaragoza.
Instead of being a simple step in their operation, it became the field of an intense battle opposing the loyalist army and that of General Francisco Franco's. Between August 24 and September 6, more than 5,000 people were killed, including half of Belchite's population. The town was left in rubble. As a way to illustrate the Republicans' violence, Franco decided to leave the old town in ruins and build a new Belchite nearby. All the survivors were relocated there, but they had to wait 15 years for it to be complete.
If nothing particular happens in new Belchite, home to around 1,500 residents, the remains of old Belchite offer their share of chilling ghost stories. Some visitors say they felt a presence, someone watching them, sudden change of temperatures and strange sounds. The ruins of the old village have been used as a film set for Terry Gilliam's The Adventures of Baron Munchausen - with the crew reporting the apparition of two women dressed in period costumes - and Guillermo del Toro's Pan's Labyrinth. And in October 1986, members of the television program "Cuarta Dimensión" (the 4th dimension) spent a night in Belchite and came back with some spooky recordings of war sounds.
Gur Emir, a conquerer’s mausoleum - Uzbekistan
Gur Emir (Tomb of Timur) in Samarkand, Uzbekistan
The news echoed through the streets and bazaars of Samarkand: "The Russian expedition will open the tomb of Tamerlane the Great. It will be our curse!" It was June 1941, and a small team of Soviet researchers began excavations in the Gur-Emir mausoleum in southeastern Uzbekistan.
The aim was to prove that the remains in the tomb did in fact belong to Tamerlane — the infamous 14th-century conqueror and first ruler of the Timurid dynasty who some historians say massacred 1% of the world's population in 1360.
Still, on June 20, despite protests from local residents and Muslim clergy, Tamerlame's tomb was cracked open — marked with the inscription: "When I Rise From the Dead, The World Shall Tremble."
Only two days later, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, with the people of Samarkand linking it to the disturbing of Tamerlane's peace. Amid local protests, the excavation was immediately wrapped up and the remains of the Turkish/Mongol conqueror were sent to Moscow. The turning point in the war came with the victory in the Battle of Stalingrad — only a month after a superstitious Stalin ordered the return of Tamerlane's remains to Samarkand where the former emperor was re-buried with full honors.
Gamla Stan, a royal massacre - Sweden
The red house of Gamla Stan, Stockholm, Sweden
After Danish King Kristian II successfully invaded Sweden and was anointed King in November 1520, the new ruler called Swedish leaders to join for festivities at the royal palace in Stockholm. At dusk, after three days of wine, beer and spectacles, Danish soldiers carrying lanterns and torches entered the great hall and imprisoned the gathered nobles who were considered potential opponents of the Danish king. In the days that followed, 92 people were swiftly sentenced to death, and either hanged or beheaded on Stortorget, the main square in Gamla Stan (Old Town).
Until this day, the Stockholm Bloodbath is considered one of the most brutal events in Scandinavian history, and some people have reported visions of blood flowing across the cobblestoned square in early November. A little over a century later, a red house on the square was rebuilt as a monument for the executed — fitted with 92 white stones for each slain man. Legend has it that should one of the stones be removed, the ghost of the represented will rise from the dead and haunt the streets of Stockholm for all eternity.
Port Arthur, gruesome prison - Australia
Port Arthur Prison Settlement, Tasmania, Australia
During its 47-year history as a penal settlement, Port Arthur in southern Tasmania earned a reputation as one of the most notorious prisons in the British Empire. The institution — known for a brutal slavery system and punishment of the most hardened criminals sent from the motherland— claimed the lives of more than 1,000 inmates until its closure in 1877.
Since then, documented stories have spanned the paranormal gamut: poltergeist prisoners terrorizing visitors, weeping children roaming the port and tourists running into a weeping 'lady in blue' (apparently the spirit of a woman who died in childbirth). The museum even has an 'incidence form' ready for anyone wanting to report an otherworldly event.
Poveglia Island, plague victims - Italy
Poveglia Island, Italy
Located off the coast of Venice and Lido, Poveglia sadly reunites all the classical elements of a horror movie: plagues, mass burial ground and mental institute (from the 1920's).
During the bubonic plague and other subsequent pandemics, the island served as a quarantine station for the sick and anyone showing any signs of what could be Black Death contamination. Some 160,000 victims are thought to have died there and the seven acres of land became a mass burial ground so full that it is said that human ash makes up more than 50% of Poveglia's soil.
In 1922 a retirement home for the elderly — used as a clandestine mental institution— opened on the island and with it a fair amount of rumors involving torture of patients. The hospital and consequently the whole island was closed in 1968, leaving all the dead trapped off-land.
Poveglia's terrifying past earned it the nickname of 'Island of Ghosts'. Despite being strictly off-limits to visitors, the site has been attracting paranormal activity hunters looking for the apparition of lost and angry souls. The island would be so evil that some locals say that when an evil person dies, he wakes up in Poveglia, another kind of hell.
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