Geopolitics

Joining Assad's Reserve Forces, For The Money

A steady stream of Syrians are joining the National Defense Force, a loyalist reserve force set up in 2012 by President Bashar al-Assad. For many it's the only way to make a living.

From a video promoting NDF fighters in Syria
From a video promoting NDF fighters in Syria
Ghaith Abdel Aziz

DAMASCUS — In October 2012, Ahmed, a sergeant in the Syrian army, was fired after losing his weapon. He joined the National Defense Force (NDF) as a career move: To him, it was just another job.

"I have two children and I had to provide for them," says the 34-year-old from a town north of Damascus. "There was no other choice but to join the National Defense Force, because they offered a monthly salary to anyone who joined."

Since the conflict began in 2011, a steady stream of men have elected to dodge their compulsory military service, avoiding a dangerous fight in rebel-held areas. But now many of them are deciding to join the National Defense Force, a loyalist reserve force used by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad since 2012. The NDF is deployed to back up a Syrian army that has seen its ranks depleted by death, injury, desertion and has been further stretched as new fronts open against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).

Among the central motivation for many new recruits are financial reasons. The NDF ranks are often more appealing than the rigor imposed by the Syrian army; service isn't compulsory, while monthly salaries can provide for families left back home.

Ahmed says he makes 15,000 Syrian pounds per month with the NDF just under $100. But he says fighters also make money from fees collected from drivers at checkpoints and road blocks, and from the spoils of battle.

"We have direct orders to collect whatever we want," he says. "Our commanders tell us: "The properties of your enemies are lawfully yours." And then they take whatever they want as well."

Multiple commands

Soon after the NDF's formation, Ahmed says trainers were brought in from Hezbollah and the Quds Force of Iran's Revolutionary Guards both allies of the Assad regime. Ahmed says new recruits were also trained for battle by officers from Syria's own Republican Guard.

Ahmed's first mission saw him fighting alongside the Syrian army to break a rebel siege on a strategic military location in eastern Ghouta. On another occasion he went into Yabroud to back up Syrian army fighters.

"In Ghouta we were under the command of a general from the Syrian army," he says. "In Yabroud, we took orders from a Hezbollah commander, because there were Hezbollah fighters alongside us. We were at the front with Hezbollah, and we were charged with checking the areas that the Syrian air force had shelled."

For those who join solely for the financial benefits, injuries can end a career. The NDF often does not follow through on keeping injured soldiers on retainer, or on weaving them back into the fighting rotation. In 2013, Munther, a 29-year-old recruit, was injured while fighting in Aleppo province.

"After the injury I went home to recover. But my leave has been unpaid," he said. To make ends meet he's currently working as a private Arabic language tutor.

The NDF earned a fearsome reputation among some civilian populations. Ismael, 52, lives in an area of southern Damascus that came under NDF control after falling to the regime. "They cause constant pain in our lives," he says. "They are terrorizing people. Our homes are raided and searched for no reason, whenever they feel like it."

But others have a different point of view. In areas with heavy support for the Assad regime, residents say the NDF's fighters need to exert such force to protect their neighborhoods. "The NDF is justified in its ways," says Alaa, who lives in the loyalist stronghold of Tartous. "They keep the area secure and protect it from rebel forces."

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Society

Iran To Offer Master's And PhD In Morality Enforcement

For those aiming to serve the Islamic Republic of Iran as experts to train the public morality agents, there are now courses to obtain the "proper" training.

Properly dressed in the holy city of Qom.

Iran will create new "master's and doctorate" programs to train state morality agents checking on people's public conduct and attire, according to several Persian-language news sources.

Mehran Samadi, a senior official of the Headquarters to Enjoin Virtues and Proscribe Vices (Amr-e be ma'ruf va nahy az monkar) said "anyone who wants to enjoin virtues must have the knowledge," the London-based broadcaster Iran International reported, citing reports from Iran.


The morality patrols, in force since the 1979 revolution, tend to focus mostly on young people and women, particularly the public appearance for the latter. Loose headscarves will send women straight to a police station, often in humiliating conditions. Five years ago, the regime announced a new force of some 7,000 additional agents checking on women's hijabs and other standards of dress and behavior.

A woman in Tehran walks past a mural of an Iranian flag

The traffic police chief recently said women were not allowed to ride motorbikes

Rouzbeh Fouladi/ZUMA

New academic discipline

Last week, for example, Tehran police revealed that they had "disciplined" agents who had been filmed forcefully shoving a girl into a van. Such incidents may increase under the new, conservative president, Ibrahim Raisi.

Speaking about the new academic discipline, Samadi said morals go "much further than headscarves and modesty," and those earning graduate degrees would teach agents "what the priorities are."

Iran's Islamic regime, under the guidance of Shia jurists, continuously fine tunes notions of "proper" conduct — and calibrates its own, interventionist authority. More recently the traffic police chief said women were not allowed to ride motorbikes, and "would be stopped," Prague-based Radio Farda reported.

Days before, a cleric in the holy city of Qom in central Iran insisted that people must be vaccinated by a medic of the same sex "as often as possible," and if not, there should be no pictures of mixed-sex vaccinations.

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