From Germany To Japan, Race To Be First To Do Business With Iran

As the lifting of sanctions appears to move closer to reality, business and government leaders from leading economies are eager to restore trading ties with Tehran

Foreign currency is still highly valued in Tehran
Foreign currency is still highly valued in Tehran
Cerstin Gammelin

BERLIN â€" Credit cards don't work. Remittances require complicated special authorizations. Financial institutions are banished from international banking systems. No, we're not talking about Greece or some obscure tiny nation in Asia, but a major player in the Middle East: the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Still, in all likelihood, it will not be like this for long. Iran is being courted as a significant business partner with the Western world. After the signing of July's nuclear treaty, longstanding economic sanctions imposed by the West are expected to be lifted by 2016. European countries have spent the past few months looking to rekindle business relations with Iran. Beyond its large deposits of natural gas and oil, Iranian society places a high value on education and personal economic advancement.

With the recent signs of a slowdown in the Chinese economy, Iran starts to look even more attractive; and Western countries are now embroiled in stiff competition to forge the best contacts.

Iran, which has one of the highest population densities in the world, has been isolated for years from the West as a result of the international sanctions imposed as punishment, both for striving to build nuclear weapons and its disregard for human rights. Foreign policymakers and economics experts describe the sanctions as "the most complicated ever imposed."

Jockeying begins

The race for the best trade relationships with Iran has already begun. German Foreign Affairs Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier announced that he would be in Iran in October "to personally form an opinion." German Economic Affairs Minister Sigmar Gabriel already traveled to Iran in July, shortly after the nuclear treaty was signed, to lead a delegation of German business leaders.

The goal of that trip was to "forge a first political contact," Gabriel said in response to criticism that he didn't observe an appropriate diplomatic waiting time after signing the treaty.

Since then, however, French, Italian and other delegations have visited Tehran. This week, Austrian President Heinz Fischer became the first European head of state to visit Iran since 2004.

Germany's Ministry of Economic Affairs cites Iran's traditionally strong industrial base, which is made up not only of oil and gas but also automotive construction. In addition, compared to China, Iranians are thought to have more collective self-confidence and the society is more developed over all.

Unhappy Israel

Still, despite the economic opportunities, geopolitics continues to weigh on the West's evolving relationship with Iran. Tehran recently canceled a concert featuring the famous conductor Daniel Barenboim, who is an Israeli citizen.A day later, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu again vehemently criticized the anticipated lifting of international sanctions against Iran.

The German government, on the other hand, believes that the nuclear treaty signed in Vienna will provide more security throughout the region, in addition to opening up new diplomatic channels.

Meanwhile, government ministries are preparing executive orders that would legally invalidate the sanctions, which would connect the Iranian banking system with international payment systems. The Federal Bank describes this integration of Iranian banks as a "technical task that can be solved within 48 hours."

But the most difficult part of the operation will be the coordination between Europe and the United States. The U.S. has created such a tightly knit net of sanctions that foreign companies can easily get entangled. Companies that have business relations with Iran and inadvertently breach sanctions could then be sanctioned by the U.S. and severely punished.

It's "a very big risk, to only go one step too far," said one source from the Ministry of Economic Affairs, who cited Commerzbank as an example. As part of a legal settlement, the German financial institution had to pay a fine of $1.5 million at the beginning of 2015.

To avoid such situations in the future, European officials are meticulously coordinating "legal mechanisms and instruments for companies, banks and financial institutions" with their American counterparts, said the German ministry source.

Still, all of this is contingent on the U.S. Congress approving the treaty signed in Vienna. Legally speaking, these conditions only come into force in mid-October, but the grace period given to fulfill these conditions will be counted down from then onwards.

Official grace periods are one thing, but economic interest another. Americans, Europeans and Iranians are already preparing for the day the sanctions are lifted. So too are the Japanese, Koreans and Swiss. As one official in Berlin said: "We want to avoid that the sanctions will be lifted without trade resuming immediately."

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Air Next: How A Crypto Scam Collapsed On A Single Spelling Mistake

It is today a proven fraud, nailed by the French stock market watchdog: Air Next resorted to a full range of dubious practices to raise money for a blockchain-powered e-commerce app. But the simplest of errors exposed the scam and limited the damage to investors. A cautionary tale for the crypto economy.

Sky is the crypto limit

Laurence Boisseau

PARIS — Air Next promised to use blockchain technology to revolutionize passenger transport. Should we have read something into its name? In fact, the company was talking a lot of hot air from the start. Air Next turned out to be a scam, with a fake website, false identities, fake criminal records, counterfeited bank certificates, aggressive marketing … real crooks. Thirty-five employees recruited over the summer ranked among its victims, not to mention the few investors who put money in the business.

Maud (not her real name) had always dreamed of working in a start-up. In July, she spotted an ad on Linkedin and was interviewed by videoconference — hardly unusual in the era of COVID and teleworking. She was hired very quickly and signed a permanent work contract. She resigned from her old job, happy to get started on a new adventure.

Others like Maud fell for the bait. At least ten senior managers, coming from major airlines, airports, large French and American corporations, a former police officer … all firmly believed in this project. Some quit their jobs to join; some French expats even made their way back to France.

Share capital of one billion 

The story began last February, when Air Next registered with the Paris Commercial Court. The new company stated it was developing an application that would allow the purchase of airline tickets by using cryptocurrency, at unbeatable prices and with an automatic guarantee in case of cancellation or delay, via a "smart contract" system (a computer protocol that facilitates, verifies and oversees the handling of a contract).

The firm declared a share capital of one billion euros, with offices under construction at 50, Avenue des Champs Elysées, and a president, Philippe Vincent ... which was probably a usurped identity.

Last summer, Air Next started recruiting. The company also wanted to raise money to have the assets on hand to allow passenger compensation. It organized a fundraiser using an ICO, or "Initial Coin Offering", via the issuance of digital tokens, transacted in cryptocurrencies through the blockchain.

While nothing obliged him to do so, the company owner went as far as setting up a file with the AMF, France's stock market regulator which oversees this type of transaction. Seeking the market regulator stamp is optional, but when issued, it gives guarantees to those buying tokens.

screenshot of the typo that revealed the Air Next scam

The infamous typo that brought the Air Next scam down

compta online

Raising Initial Coin Offering 

Then, on Sept. 30, the AMF issued an alert, by way of a press release, on the risks of fraud associated with the ICO, as it suspected some documents to be forgeries. A few hours before that, Air Next had just brought forward by several days the date of its tokens pre-sale.

For employees of the new company, it was a brutal wake-up call. They quickly understood that they had been duped, that they'd bet on the proverbial house of cards. On the investor side, the CEO didn't get beyond an initial fundraising of 150,000 euros. He was hoping to raise millions, but despite his failure, he didn't lose confidence. Challenged by one of his employees on Telegram, he admitted that "many documents provided were false", that "an error cost the life of this project."

What was the "error" he was referring to? A typo in the name of the would-be bank backing the startup. A very small one, at the bottom of the page of the false bank certificate, where the name "Edmond de Rothschild" is misspelled "Edemond".

Finding culprits 

Before the AMF's public alert, websites specializing in crypto-assets had already noted certain inconsistencies. The company had declared a share capital of 1 billion euros, which is an enormous amount. Air Next's CEO also boasted about having discovered bitcoin at a time when only a few geeks knew about cryptocurrency.

Employees and investors filed a complaint. Failing to find the general manager, Julien Leclerc — which might also be a fake name — they started looking for other culprits. They believe that if the Paris Commercial Court hadn't registered the company, no one would have been defrauded.

Beyond the handful of victims, this case is a plea for the implementation of more secure procedures, in an increasingly digital world, particularly following the pandemic. The much touted ICO market is itself a victim, and may find it hard to recover.

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