France's Intervention In Mali, And The Continental Spillover

The terrorist attack and hostage-taking in neighboring Algeria is just one of the ways that France's intervention in Mali could spread across Africa, and beyond.

France's Intervention In Mali, And The Continental Spillover
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Albert Bourgi

PARIS - An unlikely bond unites France's two most recent heads of state, Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande: they both gave the green light to interventions in Africa just a few months after taking office.

Sarkozy authorized action in Chad in 2008, and Hollande of course, has taken France into war in Mali this past week.

There is little else in common between the two situations, though both were reminders of the solid relationship between a part of the African continent and France. In 2008, the French air force pounded Chadian rebels who had reached the gates of N’djamena, in order to save “private” Deby. This operation follows the traditional and recurring will to get involved to show France’s support to political leaders contested in their own countries.

When he decided to launch a vast military operation in Mali, led by Special Forces troops, François Hollande made an unprecedented decision in the history of the often rocky relations between France and Africa. It was the retreat of Mali’s military after its defeat against Islamic extremists near the strategic Sévaré airbase that convinced the French government to take action. Fearing those terrorist organizations would head south to take Mali’s capital city of Bamako, Hollande chose to set aside what he'd vowed during the presidential campaign about not getting military involved in Africa anymore.

The risks of this country being under complete jihadist control would have affected every country in the Sahel area in the southern Sahara, and even West Africa, not to mention Western countries worried about attacks on their own soil. (The attack Wednesday by Islamic terrorists, who took Westerns hostage at a gas treatment facility in neighboring Algeria, is already proof of how quickly the conflict can spread.)

Once France decided to intervene in Mali, it had to act swiftly; it is a demonstration that the country is still quite concerned about what happens in its former colonies on matters such as security and territorial integrity. The latter was the pretext that then President François Mitterand used in the mid-1980s when he called upon the troops to drive Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi's army out of Chad.

After more than nine months of military status quo, the result of the inexistent action of Mali's transitional government and the failure in mediation in West Africa, the current French intervention deals new cards on the internal and regional level.

True extremists

While this operation is driven by the danger the terrorist organization represents -- being both well-armed and of a notably fanatical Islamist bent -- we have to take into account the risks of getting bogged down and witness long term instability in this part of Africa. One naturally looks at what has happened in Somalia, where violence brewing since the early 1990s has spread across other parts of the Horn of Africa, which remains deeply unstable 20 years later.

The possibility of a conflict stretching over years must be weighed since the armed groups are scattered across the desert along Mali’s northern border with Algeria, and they constantly roam these areas. They have the advantage of knowing the terrain, which gives them a mobility bonus and easy contact with numerous terrorist bases sometimes located outside Mali.

A 2012 United Nations report on the region warned of the dangers of a military operation led by a coalition of Malian troops and members of the ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States). This report was mainly about the logistical difficulties of fighting on such unusual grounds for a conventional African army.

Even if the details –- length of operation, number of units, compatibility with African allies -- remain a blur, the French intervention will only make sense if it aims at a political solution that includes all of the country’s ethnic groups, including Tuaregs and Arabs.

This agreement would be used as a base for a political system different from the make-believe democracies that have flourished since 1991. The French action should prompt a catharsis allowing the Malian political class to realize that now’s not the time for conflicts over who’s the leader of this country. But it should also be a broader wake-up call to determine the fate of a thousand-year-old nation, whose history and culture is integral to the entire continent.

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How China Flipped From Tech Copycat To Tech Leader

Long perceived as a country chasing Western tech, China's business and technological innovations are now influencing the rest of the world. Still lagging on some fronts, the future is now up for grabs.

At the World Semiconductor Conference in Nanjing, China, on June 9

Emmanuel Grasland

BEIJING — China's tech tycoons have fallen out of favor: Jack Ma (Alibaba), Colin Huang (Pinduoduo), Richard Liu (Tencent) and Zhang Yiming (ByteDance) have all been pressured by Beijing to leave their jobs or step back from a public role. Their time may be coming to an end, but the legacy remains exceptional. Under their reign, China has become a veritable window to the global future of technology.

TikTok is the perfect example. Launched in 2016, the video messaging app has been downloaded over two billion times worldwide. It has passed the 100-million active user mark in the United States. Thanks to TikTok's success, ByteDance, its parent company, has reached an exceptional level of influence on the internet.

For a long time, the West viewed China's digital ecosystem as a cheap imitation of Silicon Valley. The European and American media described the giants of the Asian superpower as the "Chinese Google" or "Chinese Amazon." But the tables have turned.

No Western equivalent to WeChat

The Asian superpower has forged cutting-edge business models that do not exist elsewhere. It is impossible to find a Western equivalent to the WeChat super-app (1.2 billion users), which is used for shopping as much as for making a medical appointment or obtaining credit.

The flow of innovation is now changing direction.

The roles have actually reversed: In a recent article, Les Echos describes the California-based social network IRL, as a "WeChat of the Western world."

Grégory Boutté, digital and customer relations director at the multinational luxury group Kering, explains, "The Chinese digital ecosystem is incredibly different, and its speed of evolution is impressive. Above all, the flow of innovation is now changing direction."

This is illustrated by the recent creation of "live shopping" events in France, which are hosted by celebrities and taken from a concept already popular in China.

10,000 new startups per day

There is an explosion of this phenomenon in the digital sphere. Rachel Daydou, Partner & China General Manager of the consulting firm Fabernovel in Shanghai, says, "With Libra, Facebook is trying to create a financial entity based on social media, just as WeChat did with WeChat Pay. Facebook Shop looks suspiciously like WeChat's mini-programs. Amazon Live is inspired by Taobao Live and YouTube Shopping by Douyin, the Chinese equivalent of TikTok."

In China, it is possible to go to fully robotized restaurants or to give a panhandler some change via mobile payment. Your wallet is destined to be obsolete because your phone can read restaurant menus and pay for your meal via a QR Code.

The country uses shared mobile chargers the way Europeans use bicycles, and is already testing electric car battery swap stations to avoid 30 minutes of recharging time.

Michael David, chief omnichannel director at LVMH, says, "The Chinese ecosystem is permanently bubbling with innovation. About 10,000 start-ups are created every day in the country."

China is also the most advanced country in the electric car market. With 370 models at the end of 2020, it had an offering that was almost twice as large as Europe's, according to the International Energy Agency.

Photo of a phone's screen displaying the logo of \u200bChina's super-app WeChat

China's super-app WeChat

Omar Marques/SOPA Images/ZUMA

The whole market runs on tech

Luca de Meo, CEO of French automaker Renault, said in June that China is "ahead of Europe in many areas, whether it's electric cars, connectivity or autonomous driving. You have to be there to know what's going on."

As a market, China is also a source of technological inspiration for Western companies, a world leader in e-commerce, solar, mobile payments, digital currency and facial recognition. It has the largest 5G network, with more than one million antennas up and running, compared to 400,000 in Europe.

Self-driving cars offer an interesting point of divergence between China and the West.

Just take the number of connected devices (1.1 billion), the time spent on mobile (six hours per day) and, above all, the magnitude of data collected to deploy and improve artificial intelligence algorithms faster than in Europe or the United States.

The groundbreaking field of self-driving cars offers an interesting point of divergence between China and the West. Artificial intelligence guru Kai-Fu Lee explains that China believes that we should teach the highway to speak to the car, imagining new services and rethinking cities to avoid cars crossing pedestrians, while the West does not intend to go that far.

Still lagging in some key sectors

There are areas where China is still struggling, such as semiconductors. Despite a production increase of nearly 50% per year, the country produces less than 40% of the chips it consumes, according to official data. This dependence threatens its ambitions in artificial intelligence, telecoms and autonomous vehicles. Chinese manufacturers work with an engraving fineness of 28 nm or more, far from those of Intel, Samsung or TSMC. They are unable to produce processors for high-performance PCs.

China's aerospace industry is also lagging behind the West. There are also no Chinese players among the top 20 life science companies on the stock market and there are doubts surrounding the efficacy of Sinovac and Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccines. As of 2019, the country files more patents per year than the U.S., but far fewer are converted into marketable products.

Beijing knows its weaknesses and is working to eliminate them. Adopted in March, the nation's 14th five-year plan calls for a 7% annual increase in R&D spending between now and 2025, compared with 12% under the previous plan. Big data aside, that is basic math anyone can understand.
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