August 14, 2015
CAIRO â€" Egypt's Interior Ministry is sending the message that harassment against women will not be tolerated. And to enforce the crackdown, which resulted in 84 arrests during the Eid holiday break (according to official statements), it is using female police officers.
The image â€" of a female cop robustly roaming the harassment-laden streets of Cairo before a mesmerized public â€" is a compelling one. But there are some complexities here that ought to be addressed as well.
Excessive use of violence
A video circulating on social media shows a female police officer dragging an alleged harasser into a movie theater and giving him a number of electric shocks while handcuffed.
Intessar al-Said, head of the Cairo Center for Development and Human Rights, one of the organizations that volunteered to combat harassment during Eid, criticizes the excessive use of violence, saying that harassers should be dealt with within a legal framework.
â€œThe harasser is a criminal. In our culture, ganging up on and beating thieves is accepted,â€ she says, but â€œcriminals should be punished under the law.â€
Dalia Abdel Hameed, head of the gender and womenâ€™s rights program at the Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights, agrees, saying that police culture in general includes a sense of entitlement to use violence against those who have been arrested. They become immediately stripped of their rights, especially at a time when police impunity is on the rise.
Abdel Hameed says the use of violence is debatable when arresting the perpetrators of mass harassment, dealing with armed harassers, or protecting someone at risk. However, she adds that it is a different story once the harasser has been arrested.
â€œMaybe she needed to use violence to pull him off girls, but using an electric rod against him after heâ€™s been arrested and surrendered, that is a real violation,â€ she says.
Turning the tables
A photo widely circulated on Facebook shows an alleged harasser in a tight headlock by a female officer. Pictures of this kind prompted varying responses, not so much because of the violence involved, but because of how striking it is to see women in such public positions of power.
Some media posts pontificated on the strength and daring of the female officers. Others dismissed them as disrupting social norms. "This is more about gender politics," Abdel Hameed explains. "People are upset because women aren't supposed to hit men. Not because itâ€™s the police."
Making this the rule, not the exception
Images of female police officers roaming the streets of Cairo for Eid prompted calls by activists that harassment should be challenged year-round, not just on special occasions.
The "I Saw Harassment" campaign urged the government to reform security plans to combat sexual harassment. In its report on the Eid break, the campaign said it should be a priority for officers every day, and highlighted the importance of recruiting female officers across all sectors of the Interior Ministry.
But Abdel Hameed says the increased presence of women in police forces around the world has largely contributed to a decrease in police violence.
"Neither angels nor demons"
The "I Saw Harassment" campaign says female police officers need to be better trained in dealing with cases specifically related to violence against women and in spreading a culture of equality.
Abdel Hameed claims that, while they lack training, they are on the right path. She says the Ministryâ€™s unit to combat violence against women is becoming more gender sensitive, but that the process will take time. She adds that womenâ€™s groups and NGOs must offer support in terms of capacity building.
There has been some criticism on hiring female police officers to only deal with issues affecting women, Abdel Hameed states. Critics affirm their responsibilities should encompass more varied police work.
Female police officers "are neither angels nor demons," says Abdel Hameed. She lauds the governmentâ€™s attempts to take the issue seriously and says that years of volunteer work in the field of fighting sexual harassment has pushed the state to finally deal with harassment as a crime. Abdel Hameed insists, nevertheless, that there's still a long way to go.
Protecting the patriarchy?
Aly El Raggal, a researcher who specializes in issues related to the body and security, agrees with Abdel Hameed that female police officers are a positive step.
"For the state to feel that women have to do this, even if in a "masculine way," means that they understand there is a crisis. They also understand that it's a crisis more present for women than men, hence the need to engage women in the fight." He adds that with time, these female officers will want to prove themselves more, which will also be part of the success of this experience.
The problem lies in doing so through the mimicking of police behavior that is largely a male-dominated field, which is not a phenomenon limited to Egypt. "If the process is not developed properly, we risk reproducing the very patriarchy we are trying to fight," Raggal says.
He goes on to say that the state's logic in fighting harassment is ultimately laced with a sense of patriarchy, whereby the government feels responsible to protect the bodies of women, as opposed to guaranteeing their freedom. Raggal also fears that resorting to policing genders separately will essentially limit public space further, which may worsen the sexual tension already rampant and palpable on Egypt's streets.
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It is today a proven fraud, nailed by the French stock market watchdog: Air Next resorted to a full range of dubious practices to raise money but the simplest of errors exposed the scam and limited the damage to investors.
October 27, 2021
PARIS — Air Next promised to use blockchain technology to revolutionize passenger transport. Should we have read something into its name? In fact, the company was talking a lot of hot air from the start. Air Next turned out to be a scam, with a fake website, false identities, fake criminal records, counterfeited bank certificates, aggressive marketing … real crooks. Thirty-five employees recruited over the summer ranked among its victims, not to mention the few investors who put money in the business.
Maud (not her real name) had always dreamed of working in a start-up. In July, she spotted an ad on Linkedin and was interviewed by videoconference — hardly unusual in the era of COVID and teleworking. She was hired very quickly and signed a permanent work contract. She resigned from her old job, happy to get started on a new adventure.
Others like Maud fell for the bait. At least ten senior managers, coming from major airlines, airports, large French and American corporations, a former police officer … all firmly believed in this project. Some quit their jobs to join; some French expats even made their way back to France.
Share capital of one billion
The story began last February, when Air Next registered with the Paris Commercial Court. The new company stated it was developing an application that would allow the purchase of airline tickets by using cryptocurrency, at unbeatable prices and with an automatic guarantee in case of cancellation or delay, via a "smart contract" system (a computer protocol that facilitates, verifies and oversees the handling of a contract).
The firm declared a share capital of one billion euros, with offices under construction at 50, Avenue des Champs Elysées, and a president, Philippe Vincent ... which was probably a usurped identity.
Last summer, Air Next started recruiting. The company also wanted to raise money to have the assets on hand to allow passenger compensation. It organized a fundraiser using an ICO, or "Initial Coin Offering", via the issuance of digital tokens, transacted in cryptocurrencies through the blockchain.
While nothing obliged him to do so, the company owner went as far as setting up a file with the AMF, France's stock market regulator which oversees this type of transaction. Seeking the market regulator stamp is optional, but when issued, it gives guarantees to those buying tokens.
The infamous typo that brought the Air Next scam down
Raising Initial Coin Offering
Then, on Sept. 30, the AMF issued an alert, by way of a press release, on the risks of fraud associated with the ICO, as it suspected some documents to be forgeries. A few hours before that, Air Next had just brought forward by several days the date of its tokens pre-sale.
For employees of the new company, it was a brutal wake-up call. They quickly understood that they had been duped, that they'd bet on the proverbial house of cards. On the investor side, the CEO didn't get beyond an initial fundraising of 150,000 euros. He was hoping to raise millions, but despite his failure, he didn't lose confidence. Challenged by one of his employees on Telegram, he admitted that "many documents provided were false", that "an error cost the life of this project."
What was the "error" he was referring to? A typo in the name of the would-be bank backing the startup. A very small one, at the bottom of the page of the false bank certificate, where the name "Edmond de Rothschild" is misspelled "Edemond".
Before the AMF's public alert, websites specializing in crypto-assets had already noted certain inconsistencies. The company had declared a share capital of 1 billion euros, which is an enormous amount. Air Next's CEO also boasted about having discovered bitcoin at a time when only a few geeks knew about cryptocurrency.
Employees and investors filed a complaint. Failing to find the general manager, Julien Leclerc — which might also be a fake name — they started looking for other culprits. They believe that if the Paris Commercial Court hadn't registered the company, no one would have been defrauded.
Beyond the handful of victims, this case is a plea for the implementation of more secure procedures, in an increasingly digital world, particularly following the pandemic. The much touted ICO market is itself a victim, and may find it hard to recover.
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