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This Happened

This Happened — November 1: A War Begins That Would Change Two Nations

Starting in 1954, the Algerian War was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front, and ultimately led to Algeria winning its independence in 1962, ending more than a century of French colonial rule.

What caused the Algerian war?

The French invasion of Algiers in 1830 would begin more than a century of colonial rule by Paris over the territory of modern-day Algeria, which was fully integrated into the French state four years later until its independence.

Algeria was a longtime destination for European immigrants, and their descendants, who came to be known as the "pieds-noir" (black feet) population.

After promises of self-rule in Algeria went unfulfilled after World War II, Algerians eventually rose up against the French government to seek autonomy.

The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France. As the war continued , the French public slowly turned against its own government and many of France's allies, including the United States, switched from supporting France to abstaining in the UN debate on Algeria.

How did the Algerian war start?

The Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) launched a series of 70 attacks against French targets across Algeria on Nov. 1, 1954. It was what came to be commonly referred to as "Toussaint Rouge" (Red All Saints' Day), or Toussaint Sanglante (Bloody All-Saints' Day), and is considered the beginning of the War in Algeria.

While the FLN attacked government buildings, they also issued a broadcast from inside Egypt (where Gamal Abdel Nasser had recently led a revolution), which called for Muslims inside Algeria to join the struggle for self-rule and democracy, within the framework of Islamic principles.

Who won the Algerian War?

The French military relied primarily on neighborhood raids, arrests, and torture, focusing its sweeps in the Casbah slum, an opposition stronghold. More than 100,000 Muslim and 10,000 French soldiers were killed in the more than seven-year Algerian War, along with thousands of Muslim civilians and hundreds of European colonists.

On July 1, 1962, Algerians overwhelmingly approved a peace agreement promising independence. French aid to Algeria continued, and Europeans were given the choice to return to their native countries, remain as foreigners in Algeria, or take Algerian citizenship. Most of the one million Europeans in Algeria left the country.

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Society

In Northern Kenya, Where Climate Change Is Measured In Starving Children

The worst drought in 40 years, which has deepened from the effects of climate change, is hitting the young the hardest around the Horn of Africa. A close-up look at the victims, and attempts to save lives and limit lasting effects on an already fragile region in Kenya.

Photo of five mothers holding their malnourished children

At feeding time, nurses and aides encourage mothers to socialize their children and stimulate them to eat.

Georgina Gustin

KAKUMA — The words "Stabilization Ward" are painted in uneven black letters above the entrance, but everyone in this massive refugee camp in Kakuma, Kenya, calls it ya maziwa: The place of milk.

Rescue workers and doctors, mothers and fathers, have carried hundreds of starving children through the doors of this one-room hospital wing, which is sometimes so crowded that babies and toddlers have to share beds. A pediatric unit is only a few steps away, but malnourished children don’t go there. They need special care, and even that doesn’t always save them.

In an office of the International Rescue Committee nearby, Vincent Opinya sits behind a desk with figures on dry-erase boards and a map of the camp on the walls around him. “We’ve lost 45 children this year due to malnutrition,” he says, juggling emergencies, phone calls, and texts. “We’re seeing a significant increase in malnutrition cases as a result of the drought — the worst we’ve faced in 40 years.”

From January to June, the ward experienced an 800 percent rise in admissions of children under 5 who needed treatment for malnourishment — a surge that aid groups blame mostly on a climate change-fueled drought that has turned the region into a parched barren.

Opinya, the nutrition manager for the IRC here, has had to rattle off these statistics many times, but the reality of the numbers is starting to crack his professional armor. “It’s a very sad situation,” he says, wearily. And he believes it will only get worse. A third year of drought is likely on the way.

More children may die. But millions will survive malnutrition and hunger only to live through a compromised future, researchers say. The longer-term health effects of this drought — weakened immune systems, developmental problems — will persist for a generation or more, with consequences that will cascade into communities and societies for decades.

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