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This Happened

This Happened — October 6: Assassination of Anwar Sadat

The assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat on this day in 1981 was a shocking and pivotal event in the history of Egypt and the Middle East.

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Who was Anwar Sadat?

Anwar Sadat was the third President of Egypt, serving from 1970 until his assassination. He succeeded Gamal Abdel Nasser and pursued a different foreign policy, including the signing of the Camp David Accords with Israel in 1978.

Why was Anwar Sadat assassinated?

Anwar Sadat was assassinated by a group of Islamist extremists who opposed his policies, particularly his peace treaty with Israel and his move towards a more Western-oriented foreign policy. The assassins believed that Sadat had betrayed their interpretation of Islam and sought to replace his government with an Islamic state. During a military parade commemorating Egypt's victory in the Yom Kippur War, a group of Egyptian soldiers led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli stormed the reviewing stand where Sadat was seated. They opened fire on him with automatic weapons, killing him and several others. Islambouli was captured at the scene and later executed.

Who succeeded Anwar Sadat as President of Egypt?

Following Anwar Sadat's assassination, Vice President Hosni Mubarak assumed the presidency. He served as Egypt's president for nearly 30 years until his resignation in 2011 during the Egyptian Revolution.

How did Anwar Sadat's assassination impact Egypt and the Middle East?

Anwar Sadat's assassination had several significant impacts. It led to a crackdown on Islamist groups in Egypt, and Mubarak's presidency was characterized by a continued authoritarian rule that stifled political opposition. Regionally, it strained Egypt's relations with some Arab countries due to its peace treaty with Israel.

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Look At This Crap! The "Enshittification" Theory Of Why The Internet Is Broken

The term was coined by journalist Cory Doctorow to explain the fatal drift of major Internet platforms: if they were ever useful and user-friendly, they will inevitably end up being odious.

A photo of hands holding onto a smartphone

A person holding their smartphone

Gilles Lambert/ZUMA
Manuel Ligero


The universe tends toward chaos. Ultimately, everything degenerates. These immutable laws are even more true of the Internet.

In the case of media platforms, everything you once thought was a good service will, sooner or later, disgust you. This trend has been given a name: enshittification. The term was coined by Canadian blogger and journalist Cory Doctorow to explain the inevitable drift of technological giants toward... well.

The explanation is in line with the most basic tenets of Marxism. All digital companies have investors (essentially the bourgeoisie, people who don't perform any work and take the lion's share of the profits), and these investors want to see the percentage of their gains grow year after year. This pushes companies to make decisions that affect the service they provide to their customers. Although they don't do it unwillingly, quite the opposite.

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Annoying customers is just another part of the business plan. Look at Netflix, for example. The streaming giant has long been riddling how to monetize shared Netflix accounts. Option 1: adding a premium option to its regular price. Next, it asked for verification through text messages. After that, it considered raising the total subscription price. It also mulled adding advertising to the mix, and so on. These endless maneuvers irritated its audience, even as the company has been unable to decide which way it wants to go. So, slowly but surely, we see it drifting toward enshittification.

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