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Red Bull - The Making Of An Explosive Cocktail

A favorite of both fitness nuts and party animals, Red Bull has some reported side-effects. Now people have started mixing energy drinks with alcohol, adding to the potential toxicity. France, one of the last countries to approve its sale, asks if its rea

Let's spend the night together (homard.net)
Let's spend the night together (homard.net)
Pascale Santi

PARIS - Non-stop dancing, all night. For years, Jean-Christophe has been drinking Red Bull with vodka, five or six times per night.

This young IT consultant describes himself as a heavy consumer of Red Bull since he was 18 years old. Today he is 28 and drinks at least one can every night, "to be able to do 16 hours of computer programming a day." Used with marijuana, "it creates a sort of "trance."" As a result, he can stay up until 5 or 6 in the morning.

Eric, a former salesman, used to drive 2,000 to 3,000 kilometers every week. Sick of drinking coffee, he decided to try energy drinks instead. Then he started drinking one to four every day from Wednesday to Friday. "It helped me keep my rhythm and push back my limits." But one day he felt ill, with his legs going wobbly and an irregular heartbeat. That was three years ago, back when he was 27. His doctor attributed the problems to fatigue and stress. Several months later, he had another attack. "That time, I thought about my lifestyle and I hypothesized that energy drinks might be responsible. So I stopped drinking them, and I haven't experienced cardiac arrhythmia since."

Earlier this month, the French National Agency for Food Security (Anses) raised the alarm. Six cases of dangerous side effects (epilepsy, coma, tremors, anxiety) have been reported since 2009, including two deaths by cardiac arrest, for which the link with energy drinks is currently being evaluated. Since the Anses put out their alert, they "have been notified of six other occurrences which are currently being examined," explains Professor Irène Margaritis, head of nutrition risk evaluation at the Anses.

Feeling good on the dance floor

Vodka-Red Bull is the fashionable cocktail in nightclubs and among young people. Red Bull but also Monster, Dark Dog, Burn and Frelon Detox are all available in supermarkets or sports clubs. They are favorites of partygoers and fitness experts, night workers and video game addicts. "My Monster is my second life," says Emmanuel, a 21-year-old working student.

But like Eric, many of them have experienced undesirable side effects: heart problems for Emmanuel; slight dizziness, sweating, a heart that "beats so hard that I have a hard time recovering," for Karim, a student from Marseilles. Others talk about temporary and unusual depressions, "crashing" after the effects of the drink wears off.

After a night out drinking four or five cans of Red Bull, Sophie was in great shape despite having slept only three hours. Her parents found her agitated - her father is a doctor - and were worried. But she wasn't: "this drink helps me keep going. On weekends, you want to let go. After one or two cans, I really feel the difference on the dance floor."

France was one of the last countries to approve the sale of these energy drinks. In 2001, the Anses had expressed doubts on their innocuousness. But Red Bull and analogous drinks were authorized for sale in May 2008 thanks to the Economy Ministry's green light, and despite opposition from the Health Ministry.

"How many accidents will it take?" asks Doctor Laurent Chevallier, a nutritionist and member of the Health environment network. "These are not essential products. It is surprising the European Union hasn't taken any action."

Binge drinking

It is the alcohol-energy drink combination that worries the Anses the most. This explosive cocktail is associated with binge drinking, very popular among young people. "Teenagers use these energy drinks to drink more and longer," explains psychiatrist Xavier Pommereau, head of the teenage department at Bordeaux's hospital.

Because these drinks decrease the perception of alcohol's effects, doctors strongly advise against mixing the two. "Scientists are currently studying the toxicity of taurine when it is associated with alcohol," says Doctor Pommereau. In addition to taurine, these drinks contain "stimulating" ingredients such as caffeine, guarana, ginseng, vitamins or D-glucuronolactone (a potentially toxic substance).

But most young people believe "it isn't as toxic as amphetamines or ecstasy," says a Nantes public servant, for whom "the controversy around a few unproven cases is a real non-issue." Some consume these drinks to stay awake and don't see what's wrong. "The real danger for young people is that they start drinking huge amounts of strong alcohols at an early age," believes Paul, a 30-something Parisian.

"Since the beginning of the 2000s, there have been two new phenomenon: drinking alcohol at an increasingly young age, and binge drinking, especially for girls. I've seen 14-year-old girls with vodka bottles in their bag," says doctor Pommereau. Out of the 15 patients in his unit, two are 12 years old.

Read more from Le Monde in French.

Photo - homard.net

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Shame On The García Márquez Heirs — Cashing In On The "Scraps" Of A Legend

A decision to publish a sketchy manuscript as a posthumous novel by the late Gabriel García Márquez would have horrified Colombia's Nobel laureate, given his painstaking devotion to the precision of the written word.

Photo of a window with a sticker of the face of Gabriel Garcia Marquez with butterfly notes at Guadalajara's International Book Fair.

Poster of Gabriel Garcia Marquez at Guadalajara's International Book Fair.

Juan David Torres Duarte


BOGOTÁ — When a writer dies, there are several ways of administering the literary estate, depending on the ambitions of the heirs. One is to exercise a millimetric check on any use or edition of the author's works, in the manner of James Joyce's nephew, Stephen, who inherited his literary rights. He refused to let even academic papers quote from Joyce's landmark novel, Ulysses.

Or, you continue to publish the works, making small additions to their corpus, as with Italo Calvino, Samuel Beckett and Clarice Lispector, or none at all, which will probably happen with Milan Kundera and Cormac McCarthy.

Another way is to seek out every scrap of paper the author left and every little word that was jotted down — on a piece of cloth, say — and drip-feed them to publishers every two to three years with great pomp and publicity, to revive the writer's renown.

This has happened with the Argentine Julio Cortázar (who seems to have sold more books dead than alive), the French author Albert Camus (now with 200 volumes of personal and unfinished works) and with the Chilean author Roberto Bolaño. The latter's posthumous oeuvre is so abundant I am starting to wonder if his heirs haven't hired a ghost writer — typing and smoking away in some bedsit in Barcelona — to churn out "newly discovered" works.

Which group, I wonder, will our late, great novelist Gabriel García Márquez fit into?

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