KOBANI — Sardar is a 26-year-old fighter in the ranks of the Kurdish People's Protection Units, known by its Kurdish acronym, the YPG. A former blacksmith, he has taken up arms for the past five years, since he first became involved with the militant group. In his eyes, it is the core of a Kurdish army that will someday represent the future state of Kurdistan.
His priority now is to defend the city of Ain al-Arab, also known by its Kurdish name Kobani. The city has been under attack by ISIS since September.
"Compared with the weapons used by ISIS, our weapons are primitive," says Mohammad Amine, a Kurdish commander. "They are using heavy artillery and mortars, while we are tackling them with individual arms and medium-sized machine guns."
He says the arrival of Peshmerga forces — Kurdish fighters from northern Iraq — have given Kobani's Kurds a boost in moral support.
"They are professional fighters, and what they brought with them in terms of weapons helps to balance us against ISIS in Kobani," he says.
Kurdish fighters have reportedly managed to retake key villages around Kobani, but Reuters reported that "the front lines in the town itself appeared little changed, with the insurgents still controlling its eastern part."
Sardar, the young soldier, agreed to speak with Syria Deeply about the state of the battle and his experience within it, and his comments follow:
"This city was relatively safe since the uprising. Our forces were not targeted with the destruction that the regime applied in other Syrian cities. So the people of this city were living a normal life until recently.
The YPG has been preparing for such times. The situation that Kobani is facing was expected. Kobani is now defending itself against the terrorism that has swept Syria, which is represented by ISIS trying to impose its control to establish their state.
The Kurds in Syria have long suffered from the regime, and now they are suffering at the hand of ISIS. The tragedies that faced the Kurds during the reign of the regime are back today, only harsher than ever. All the villages that are under ISIS control have faced horrific massacres.
I fear for the people who sought refuge in Turkey because the Turkish government is hostile towards Kurds. We are urging the Turkish government to secure better conditions for refugees. So many fighters are away from their children, and their concerns are split between fighting ISIS in Kobani and worrying about their families, who face the bitterness of seeking asylum in Turkey.
My mother, brother and two sisters are in Turkey now. I know that they are now staying in a mosque along with a large number of people from Kobani. I think of them all the time, as well as being preoccupied with everything that is going on around me. I fear they may be harmed, and I fear that I may be harmed as well.
The situation is not going well, despite our success in preventing ISIS from taking control of Kobani. ISIS has tried to advance from more than one direction, but our defense forces were prepared and have held out well so far. The U.S.-led coalition launched airstrikes against ISIS, but it didn't achieve an effective result: ISIS had the opportunity to reorganize their ranks and attack again.
Until now, no one has lent the YPG a helping hand. Instead, they have watched the violations committed by ISIS against the Kurds, as we struggle to protect ourselves and manage our own defenses. Everyone knows that if it falls, there will be huge massacres like the ones ISIS committed in Deir Ezzor against factions of the Free Syrian Army.
We are trying to drive ISIS away, but we call on the international community to intervene because we will not be able to resist forever. So many of our soldiers fell, and many injured people were transferred to Turkey for treatment, which means that our numbers are decreasing, until someone fills this void.
There are many battalions and brigades belonging to the Free Syrian Army that are fighting in Kobani along with the YPG. Arabs and Kurds are cooperating to fight ISIS. This shows that the ordeal is not in Kobani alone, but is being faced by both Arab and Kurdish areas, which makes it every fighter's duty to battle against the terrorism.
If Kobani falls, it would be a turning point for ISIS expanding its hold on the Turkish border. It would merge their access from Jarabulus in Aleppo's countryside to Tell Abyad near Raqqa. This merger would give ISIS new power and greater control, allowing them to advance to other Arab or Kurdish cities.
But a victory for Kurds in Kobani would be a starting point in working against ISIS, regaining the territories they seized and allowing the displaced people who have fled the Kurdish regions to return."
Will flying be greener? More comfortable? Less frequent? As the world eyes a post-COVID reality, we look at ways the airline industry has been changing through a pandemic that has devastated air travel.
It's hard to overstate the damage the pandemic has had on the airline industry, with global revenues dropping by 40% in 2020 and dozens of airlines around the world filing for bankruptcy. One moment last year when the gravity became particularly apparent was when Asian carriers (in countries with low COVID-19 rates) began offering "flights to nowhere" — starting and ending at the same airport as a way to earn some cash from would-be travelers who missed the in-flight experience.
More than a year later today, experts believe that air traffic won't return to normal levels until 2024.
But beyond the financial woes, the unprecedented slowdown in air travel may bring some silver linings as key aspects of the industry are bound to change once back in full spin, with some longer-term effects on aviation already emerging. Here are some major transformations to expect in the coming years:
Cleaner aviation fuel
The U.S. administration of President Joe Biden and the airline industry recently agreed to the ambitious goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050. Already in a decade, the U.S. aims to produce three billion gallons of sustainable fuel — about one-tenth of current total use — from waste, plants and other organic matter.
While greening the world's road transport has long been at the top of the climate agenda, aviation is not even included under the Paris Agreement. But with air travel responsible for roughly 12% of all CO2 emissions from transport, and stricter international regulation on the horizon, the industry is increasingly seeking sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based fuel.
Fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund.
In Germany, state broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports that the world's first factory producing CO2-neutral kerosene recently started operations in the town of Wertle, in Lower Saxony. The plant, for which Lufthansa is set to become the pilot customer, will produce CO2-neutral kerosene through a circular production cycle incorporating sustainable and green energy sources and raw materials. Energy is supplied through wind turbines from the surrounding area, while the fuel's main ingredients are water and waste-generated CO2 coming from a nearby biogas plant.
Farther north, Norwegian Air Shuttle has recently submitted a recommendation to the government that fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund aimed at developing cleaner aviation fuel, according to Norwegian news site E24. The airline also suggested that the government significantly reduce the tax burden on the industry over a longer period to allow airlines to recover from the pandemic.
High-flying ambitions for the sector
Hydrogen and electrification
Some airline manufacturers are betting on hydrogen, with research suggesting that the abundant resource has the potential to match the flight distances and payload of a current fossil-fuel aircraft. If derived from renewable resources like sun and wind power, hydrogen — with an energy-density almost three times that of gasoline or diesel — could work as a fully sustainable aviation fuel that emits only water.
One example comes out of California, where fuel-cell specialist HyPoint has entered a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Piasecki Aircraft Corporation to manufacture 650-kilowatt hydrogen fuel cell systems for aircrafts. According to HyPoint, the system — scheduled for commercial availability product by 2025 — will have four times the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries and double the specific power of existing hydrogen fuel-cell systems.
Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce is looking to smash the speed record of electrical flights with a newly designed 23-foot-long model. Christened the Spirit of Innovation, the small plane took off for the first time earlier this month and successfully managed a 15-minute long test flight. However, the company has announced plans to fly the machine faster than 300 mph (480 km/h) before the year is out, and also to sell similar propulsion systems to companies developing electrical air taxis or small commuter planes.
New aircraft designs
Airlines are also upgrading aircraft design to become more eco-friendly. Air France just received its first upgrade of a single-aisle, medium-haul aircraft in 33 years. Fleet director Nicolas Bertrand told French daily Les Echos that the new A220 — that will replace the old A320 model — will reduce operating costs by 10%, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% and noise footprint by 34%.
International first class will be very nearly a thing of the past.
The pandemic has also ushered in a new era of consumer demand where privacy and personal space is put above luxury. The retirement of older aircraft caused by COVID-19 means that international first class — already in steady decline over the last decades — will be very nearly a thing of the past. Instead, airplane manufacturers around the world (including Delta, China Eastern, JetBlue, British Airways and Shanghai Airlines) are betting on a new generation of super-business minisuites where passengers have a privacy door. The idea, which was introduced by Qatar Airways in 2017, is to offer more personal space than in regular business class but without the lavishness of first class.
Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airportcommons.wikimedia.org
Rome's Fiumicino Airport has become the first in the world to earn "the COVID-19 5-Star Airport Rating" from Skytrax, an international airline and airport review and ranking site, Italian daily La Repubblica reports. Skytrax, which publishes a yearly annual ranking of the world's best airports and issues the World Airport Awards, this year created a second list to specifically call out airports with the best health and hygiene standards.
The pandemic has also accelerated the shift towards contactless traveling, with more airports harnessing the power of biometrics — such as facial recognition or fever screening — to reduce touchpoints and human contact. Similar technology can also be used to more efficiently scan physical objects, such as explosive detection. Ultimately, passengers will be able to "check-in" and go through a security screening anywhere at the airports, removing queues and bottlenecks.
Data privacy issues
However, as pointed out in Canadian publication The Lawyer's Daily, increased use of AI and biometrics also means increased privacy concerns. For example, health and hygiene measures like digital vaccine passports also mean that airports can collect data on who has been vaccinated and the type of vaccine used.
Auckland Airport, New Zealand
The billion-dollar question: Will we fly less?
At the end of the day, even with all these (mostly positive) changes that we've seen take shape over the past 18 months, the industry faces major uncertainty about whether air travel will ever return to the pre-COVID levels. Not only are people wary about being in crowded and closed airplanes, but the worth of long-distance business travel in particular is being questioned as many have seen that meetings can function remotely, via Zoom and other online apps.
Trying to forecast the future, experts point to the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks as at least a partial blueprint for what a recovery might look like in the years ahead. Twenty years ago, as passenger enthusiasm for flying waned amid security fears following the attacks, airlines were forced to cancel flights and put planes into storage.
40% of Swedes intend to travel less
According to McKinsey, leisure trips and visits to family and friends rebounded faster than business flights, which took four years to return to pre-crisis levels in the UK. This time too, business travel is expected to lag, with the consulting firm estimating only 80% recovery of pre-pandemic levels by 2024.
But the COVID-19 crisis also came at a time when passengers were already rethinking their travel habits due to climate concerns, while worldwide lockdowns have ushered in a new era of remote working. In Sweden, a survey by the country's largest research company shows that 40% of the population intend to travel less even after the pandemic ends. Similarly in the UK, nearly 60% of adults said during the spring they intended to fly less after being vaccinated against COVID-19 — with climate change cited as a top reason for people wanting to reduce their number of flights, according to research by the University of Bristol.
At the same time, major companies are increasingly forced to face the music of the environmental movement, with several corporations rolling out climate targets over the last few years. Today, five of the 10 biggest buyers of corporate air travel in the US are technology companies: Amazon, IBM, Google, Apple and Microsoft, according to Taipei Times, all of which have set individual targets for environmental stewardship. As such, the era of flying across the Atlantic for a two-hour executive meeting is likely in its dying days.
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