BUDAPEST - Over 70 million liters of mineral-rich healing waters bubble out of Budapest’s 118 thermal springs every day. That’s a claim no other big city on the planet can make.
The baths are as old as the city itself. The Romans were well aware of the beneficial effects of the warm springs, and the Turkish invaders valued them too. Today the baths have become a place where hip youths come to party.
It all began with musician Laszlo Laki, who is a fan of black and white movies. "I was looking around for a movie theater to rent so I could show black and white films to some new music,” he recalls. "But finding the right place was really difficult, and at one point the idea came to me to show the movies in a Budapest bathhouse.”
The bathhouse’s management was skeptical at first, but finally agreed. One hundred and thirty people attended the premiere – and all of them gave the thumbs up to more bathhouse events.
Today – 16 years later – what have become the legendary “Cinetrip parties” draw young people from all over Europe to Budapest’s baths. In bikinis and bathing trunks, they dance to wild music emanating from loudspeakers, drawn in by the unique mixture of contemporary music, cinematic effects, and historic ambience. Tickets are much sought after and have to be booked well ahead.
Another popular formula is bath tours, which make it possible to attend several parties in one night, with a free shuttle bus providing transportation from one to the next.
The parties at Szechenyi Bath and Spa can contain up to 2,000 revelers. One of Europe’s largest bath complexes, Szechenyi Bath is located in City Park on the Pest side of the city. Opened in 1913, “in 1927, beach sites, as well as public bathing departments for gentlemen and ladies were added,” says its website.
Here you really do see guests playing chess surrounded by swirls of steaming mist. Bathhouse chess "is one of the most popular sights to take pictures of in Budapest," says the lady at the ticket booth. "After all, the baths aren’t only for partying."
Chess in Budapest - Photo: Alex Proimos
"Just walk through the place, you’ll be amazed," she adds as she slides the 10-euro entry ticket over. She’s right – in the high ceilinged Neo-Baroque buildings, there are carry-overs from ancient Greek and Roman bath cultures, while the saunas, steam rooms and plunge pools are reminiscent of Finland.
Because the temperatures in the thermal baths vary between 27° and 38° Celsius, bathers also come in winter and either just soak in the water as the snow flurries down or play chess on floating chessboards.
Art Nouveau and chocolate body wraps
At Gellert Spa and Bath, bathers take the waters in an historical landmark with Art Nouveau architecture that makes this establishment the jewel of Budapest’s bathhouses. A must-see is the two-story bath hall with a loggia and glass cupola elaborately decorated with bright mosaics, columns, statues, and vases – all original and dating back to 1918 when this was a men’s bath.
Ceramics in various shades of turquoise, made by the famous Zsolnay Manufacture, ornament floors, walls and pools.
It’s also fun to bathe outside in the pool with a wave machine installed in 1927. Here, as in many of the other Budapest baths, a wide variety of wellness treatments are on offer – ranging from pumice stone massages and chocolate body wraps to mudpack therapy and carbonated baths.
The highlight at the Rudas Baths is bathing like a Turkish pasha. This establishment is down by the Danube River, not far from the famous Chain Bridge. Pasha Mustapha Sokoli had it built on the ruins of an older bathhouse and in many ways it is remarkably unchanged since it was built in 1566. A massive cupola supported by eight red marble columns covers the main bathing pool. In the space’s four corners are four pools with warm water of varying temperatures that smells vaguely of rotten eggs because of the minerals. This venue too is on the Cinetrip party round, invaded periodically by young people in swimwear and flip-flops.
"Here it’s a mixture of taking the waters and partying," says event organizer Laki. "Music and a laser show guarantee a great atmosphere, and people hang out in the water, splashing around, or making out, until four in the morning.”
That such a thing is possible is pretty sensational if one considers that, following Turkish tradition, women weren’t even admitted to the Rudas Baths until 2005.
The Palatinus Bath, situated in a well-manicured park on Margaret Island, was open to all members of the public from the start. The island’s natural springs feed a huge watery landscape – 12 pools, one of them with a wave machine, two pools for children, pools “with other fun elements” – as well as the spa of a wellness hotel located on the northern side of the island.
Will flying be greener? More comfortable? Less frequent? As the world eyes a post-COVID reality, we look at ways the airline industry has been changing through a pandemic that has devastated air travel.
It's hard to overstate the damage the pandemic has had on the airline industry, with global revenues dropping by 40% in 2020 and dozens of airlines around the world filing for bankruptcy. One moment last year when the gravity became particularly apparent was when Asian carriers (in countries with low COVID-19 rates) began offering "flights to nowhere" — starting and ending at the same airport as a way to earn some cash from would-be travelers who missed the in-flight experience.
More than a year later today, experts believe that air traffic won't return to normal levels until 2024.
But beyond the financial woes, the unprecedented slowdown in air travel may bring some silver linings as key aspects of the industry are bound to change once back in full spin, with some longer-term effects on aviation already emerging. Here are some major transformations to expect in the coming years:
Cleaner aviation fuel
The U.S. administration of President Joe Biden and the airline industry recently agreed to the ambitious goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050. Already in a decade, the U.S. aims to produce three billion gallons of sustainable fuel — about one-tenth of current total use — from waste, plants and other organic matter.
While greening the world's road transport has long been at the top of the climate agenda, aviation is not even included under the Paris Agreement. But with air travel responsible for roughly 12% of all CO2 emissions from transport, and stricter international regulation on the horizon, the industry is increasingly seeking sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based fuel.
Fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund.
In Germany, state broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports that the world's first factory producing CO2-neutral kerosene recently started operations in the town of Wertle, in Lower Saxony. The plant, for which Lufthansa is set to become the pilot customer, will produce CO2-neutral kerosene through a circular production cycle incorporating sustainable and green energy sources and raw materials. Energy is supplied through wind turbines from the surrounding area, while the fuel's main ingredients are water and waste-generated CO2 coming from a nearby biogas plant.
Farther north, Norwegian Air Shuttle has recently submitted a recommendation to the government that fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund aimed at developing cleaner aviation fuel, according to Norwegian news site E24. The airline also suggested that the government significantly reduce the tax burden on the industry over a longer period to allow airlines to recover from the pandemic.
High-flying ambitions for the sector
Hydrogen and electrification
Some airline manufacturers are betting on hydrogen, with research suggesting that the abundant resource has the potential to match the flight distances and payload of a current fossil-fuel aircraft. If derived from renewable resources like sun and wind power, hydrogen — with an energy-density almost three times that of gasoline or diesel — could work as a fully sustainable aviation fuel that emits only water.
One example comes out of California, where fuel-cell specialist HyPoint has entered a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Piasecki Aircraft Corporation to manufacture 650-kilowatt hydrogen fuel cell systems for aircrafts. According to HyPoint, the system — scheduled for commercial availability product by 2025 — will have four times the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries and double the specific power of existing hydrogen fuel-cell systems.
Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce is looking to smash the speed record of electrical flights with a newly designed 23-foot-long model. Christened the Spirit of Innovation, the small plane took off for the first time earlier this month and successfully managed a 15-minute long test flight. However, the company has announced plans to fly the machine faster than 300 mph (480 km/h) before the year is out, and also to sell similar propulsion systems to companies developing electrical air taxis or small commuter planes.
New aircraft designs
Airlines are also upgrading aircraft design to become more eco-friendly. Air France just received its first upgrade of a single-aisle, medium-haul aircraft in 33 years. Fleet director Nicolas Bertrand told French daily Les Echos that the new A220 — that will replace the old A320 model — will reduce operating costs by 10%, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% and noise footprint by 34%.
International first class will be very nearly a thing of the past.
The pandemic has also ushered in a new era of consumer demand where privacy and personal space is put above luxury. The retirement of older aircraft caused by COVID-19 means that international first class — already in steady decline over the last decades — will be very nearly a thing of the past. Instead, airplane manufacturers around the world (including Delta, China Eastern, JetBlue, British Airways and Shanghai Airlines) are betting on a new generation of super-business minisuites where passengers have a privacy door. The idea, which was introduced by Qatar Airways in 2017, is to offer more personal space than in regular business class but without the lavishness of first class.
Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airportcommons.wikimedia.org
Rome's Fiumicino Airport has become the first in the world to earn "the COVID-19 5-Star Airport Rating" from Skytrax, an international airline and airport review and ranking site, Italian daily La Repubblica reports. Skytrax, which publishes a yearly annual ranking of the world's best airports and issues the World Airport Awards, this year created a second list to specifically call out airports with the best health and hygiene standards.
The pandemic has also accelerated the shift towards contactless traveling, with more airports harnessing the power of biometrics — such as facial recognition or fever screening — to reduce touchpoints and human contact. Similar technology can also be used to more efficiently scan physical objects, such as explosive detection. Ultimately, passengers will be able to "check-in" and go through a security screening anywhere at the airports, removing queues and bottlenecks.
Data privacy issues
However, as pointed out in Canadian publication The Lawyer's Daily, increased use of AI and biometrics also means increased privacy concerns. For example, health and hygiene measures like digital vaccine passports also mean that airports can collect data on who has been vaccinated and the type of vaccine used.
Auckland Airport, New Zealand
The billion-dollar question: Will we fly less?
At the end of the day, even with all these (mostly positive) changes that we've seen take shape over the past 18 months, the industry faces major uncertainty about whether air travel will ever return to the pre-COVID levels. Not only are people wary about being in crowded and closed airplanes, but the worth of long-distance business travel in particular is being questioned as many have seen that meetings can function remotely, via Zoom and other online apps.
Trying to forecast the future, experts point to the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks as at least a partial blueprint for what a recovery might look like in the years ahead. Twenty years ago, as passenger enthusiasm for flying waned amid security fears following the attacks, airlines were forced to cancel flights and put planes into storage.
40% of Swedes intend to travel less
According to McKinsey, leisure trips and visits to family and friends rebounded faster than business flights, which took four years to return to pre-crisis levels in the UK. This time too, business travel is expected to lag, with the consulting firm estimating only 80% recovery of pre-pandemic levels by 2024.
But the COVID-19 crisis also came at a time when passengers were already rethinking their travel habits due to climate concerns, while worldwide lockdowns have ushered in a new era of remote working. In Sweden, a survey by the country's largest research company shows that 40% of the population intend to travel less even after the pandemic ends. Similarly in the UK, nearly 60% of adults said during the spring they intended to fly less after being vaccinated against COVID-19 — with climate change cited as a top reason for people wanting to reduce their number of flights, according to research by the University of Bristol.
At the same time, major companies are increasingly forced to face the music of the environmental movement, with several corporations rolling out climate targets over the last few years. Today, five of the 10 biggest buyers of corporate air travel in the US are technology companies: Amazon, IBM, Google, Apple and Microsoft, according to Taipei Times, all of which have set individual targets for environmental stewardship. As such, the era of flying across the Atlantic for a two-hour executive meeting is likely in its dying days.
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