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Jazz And The Resurrection Of Post-Katrina New Orleans

Jazz band in New Orleans
Jazz band in New Orleans
Marine Benoit

NEW ORLEANS â€" There are still gaping holes left by houses that disappeared forever. There are also the brownish lines, sad reminders of just how high the water level reached on Aug. 29, 2005.

And yet 10 years after the devastation of Hurricane Katrina, the song rising from New Orleans is not a melancholy one. There's an energy and rhythm here in "Nola," as the locals call it. There's a jerky tempo, an uplifting melody, a swing and a swagger. Jazz has again taken the upper hand.

Far from the hustle and bustle of the French Quarter or the Faubourg Marigny, filled with bars and clubs, is the Musician's Village. Located in the Upper Ninth Ward, an area in the west of the city that was disproportionately affected by Katrina, it was built to accommodate destitute musicians, people who were unable to pay for the reconstruction of their houses.

The community has approximately 80 houses with multicolored facades, a park and an educational music center, all built in recent years and financed by the efforts of several associations. With a bit of luck, visitors can stumble across a trumpet player playing his scales or two guitarists playing blues on their front steps.

Several blocks south is another key spot in the city's musical landscape â€" on Rampart Street, outside a laundromat, of all places. This used to be the famous J&M Recording Studio. In 1948, Italian immigrant Cossimo Matassa, who was 18 at the time, set up the studio at the back of his father's grocery store. It has seen big names come and go, from Little Richard to Fats Domino and Lee Dorsey. But the only reminders now that crucial moments in the history of R&B and rock "n" roll played out here are the logo of the studio on the front steps and a plaque on the wall.

Opposite, there's the Louis Armstrong Park and the legendary Congo Square, considered by many to be the 19th century birthplace of jazz. They serve as a sort of natural barrier between the French Quarter, the city's historical center with its wrought iron balconies, and the Tremé, an almost 100% black area made famous by the 2010-2013 television series of the same name by David Simon, creator of The Wire.

Legendary establishments

The public park, which is always deserted, seems to rise up between two worlds watching one another. Tremé, on the other side, is still pretty banged up. But it's also very lively, and showing evident signs of gentrification. Today, one of Tremé"s schools is among the best in the city. Just across the way, like an obvious extension to the school, is a new educational music center

Madonna of the Lower 9th Ward after Hurricane Katerina, New Orleans â€" Photo: Infrogmation of New Orleans

Further west, a number of famous restaurants are now back in business, including Kermit’s Tremé Mother-in-Law Lounge, which used to belong to Ernie K-Doe, the founder of R&B, and remained closed for a long time after Katrina. Kermit Ruffins, a trumpet player, jazz singer and New Orleans figure (he also appears, playing his own role, in the series Treme), revived the place, which was covered in graffiti but cherished by local residents. The program now includes open-air barbecues and jazz concerts that serve as an antidote to Bourbon Street's tourist-trap offerings.

A couple of blocks further on is Dooky Chase's, which opened in 1941 and has never closed its doors. This was said to be Louis Armstrong's favorite restaurant. It's also where Ray Charles wrote “Early in the Morning,” while having breakfast. For lunch or dinner, visitors would do well to order the fried chicken, which is cooked to perfection.

Dancing the night away

At nightfall, music emanates from the brand new Jazz Market, which opened in early April in the Central District, another disadvantaged area. Trumpet player Irvin Mayfield, director of the New Orleans Jazz Orchestra and winner of a 2009 Grammy Award for Best Large Jazz Ensemble, was instrumental in the project. The state-of-the-art facility is dedicated to jazz but is open to other musical styles.

Why did Mayfield choose to set up this 460-seat oddity here? "I grew up in this neighborhood," he says. "I want the young people in New Orleans to keep on dreaming in front of a trombone player like all those in the previous generations did."

An evening walk along Frenchmen Street, known for the quality of its concerts, makes it even more apparent just how much the young generation still lives for music. Snug Harbor, The Spotted Cat, d.b.a. There are so many frenzied clubs open every night of the week where the quality of the jazz groups â€" but also funk, blues and bluegrass bands â€" is exceptional.

On the sidewalks, brass bands make the crowd go wild. Musicians encourage onlookers to move to the rhythm, to dance â€" right there in the middle of the street.

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Future

7 Ways The Pandemic May Change The Airline Industry For Good

Will flying be greener? More comfortable? Less frequent? As the world eyes a post-COVID reality, we look at ways the airline industry has been changing through a pandemic that has devastated air travel.

Ready for (a different kind of) takeoff?

Carl-Johan Karlsson

It's hard to overstate the damage the pandemic has had on the airline industry, with global revenues dropping by 40% in 2020 and dozens of airlines around the world filing for bankruptcy. One moment last year when the gravity became particularly apparent was when Asian carriers (in countries with low COVID-19 rates) began offering "flights to nowhere" — starting and ending at the same airport as a way to earn some cash from would-be travelers who missed the in-flight experience.

More than a year later today, experts believe that air traffic won't return to normal levels until 2024.


But beyond the financial woes, the unprecedented slowdown in air travel may bring some silver linings as key aspects of the industry are bound to change once back in full spin, with some longer-term effects on aviation already emerging. Here are some major transformations to expect in the coming years:

Cleaner aviation fuel

The U.S. administration of President Joe Biden and the airline industry recently agreed to the ambitious goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050. Already in a decade, the U.S. aims to produce three billion gallons of sustainable fuel — about one-tenth of current total use — from waste, plants and other organic matter.

While greening the world's road transport has long been at the top of the climate agenda, aviation is not even included under the Paris Agreement. But with air travel responsible for roughly 12% of all CO2 emissions from transport, and stricter international regulation on the horizon, the industry is increasingly seeking sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based fuel.

Fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund.

In Germany, state broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports that the world's first factory producing CO2-neutral kerosene recently started operations in the town of Wertle, in Lower Saxony. The plant, for which Lufthansa is set to become the pilot customer, will produce CO2-neutral kerosene through a circular production cycle incorporating sustainable and green energy sources and raw materials. Energy is supplied through wind turbines from the surrounding area, while the fuel's main ingredients are water and waste-generated CO2 coming from a nearby biogas plant.

Farther north, Norwegian Air Shuttle has recently submitted a recommendation to the government that fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund aimed at developing cleaner aviation fuel, according to Norwegian news site E24. The airline also suggested that the government significantly reduce the tax burden on the industry over a longer period to allow airlines to recover from the pandemic.

Black-and-white photo of an ariplane shot from below flying across the sky and leaving condensation trails

High-flying ambitions for the sector

Joel & Jasmin Førestbird

Hydrogen and electrification

Some airline manufacturers are betting on hydrogen, with research suggesting that the abundant resource has the potential to match the flight distances and payload of a current fossil-fuel aircraft. If derived from renewable resources like sun and wind power, hydrogen — with an energy-density almost three times that of gasoline or diesel — could work as a fully sustainable aviation fuel that emits only water.

One example comes out of California, where fuel-cell specialist HyPoint has entered a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Piasecki Aircraft Corporation to manufacture 650-kilowatt hydrogen fuel cell systems for aircrafts. According to HyPoint, the system — scheduled for commercial availability product by 2025 — will have four times the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries and double the specific power of existing hydrogen fuel-cell systems.

Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce is looking to smash the speed record of electrical flights with a newly designed 23-foot-long model. Christened the Spirit of Innovation, the small plane took off for the first time earlier this month and successfully managed a 15-minute long test flight. However, the company has announced plans to fly the machine faster than 300 mph (480 km/h) before the year is out, and also to sell similar propulsion systems to companies developing electrical air taxis or small commuter planes.

New aircraft designs

Airlines are also upgrading aircraft design to become more eco-friendly. Air France just received its first upgrade of a single-aisle, medium-haul aircraft in 33 years. Fleet director Nicolas Bertrand told French daily Les Echos that the new A220 — that will replace the old A320 model — will reduce operating costs by 10%, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% and noise footprint by 34%.

International first class will be very nearly a thing of the past.

The pandemic has also ushered in a new era of consumer demand where privacy and personal space is put above luxury. The retirement of older aircraft caused by COVID-19 means that international first class — already in steady decline over the last decades — will be very nearly a thing of the past. Instead, airplane manufacturers around the world (including Delta, China Eastern, JetBlue, British Airways and Shanghai Airlines) are betting on a new generation of super-business minisuites where passengers have a privacy door. The idea, which was introduced by Qatar Airways in 2017, is to offer more personal space than in regular business class but without the lavishness of first class.

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

commons.wikimedia.org

Hygiene rankings  

Rome's Fiumicino Airport has become the first in the world to earn "the COVID-19 5-Star Airport Rating" from Skytrax, an international airline and airport review and ranking site, Italian daily La Repubblica reports. Skytrax, which publishes a yearly annual ranking of the world's best airports and issues the World Airport Awards, this year created a second list to specifically call out airports with the best health and hygiene standards.

Smoother check-in

​The pandemic has also accelerated the shift towards contactless traveling, with more airports harnessing the power of biometrics — such as facial recognition or fever screening — to reduce touchpoints and human contact. Similar technology can also be used to more efficiently scan physical objects, such as explosive detection. Ultimately, passengers will be able to "check-in" and go through a security screening anywhere at the airports, removing queues and bottlenecks.

Data privacy issues

​However, as pointed out in Canadian publication The Lawyer's Daily, increased use of AI and biometrics also means increased privacy concerns. For example, health and hygiene measures like digital vaccine passports also mean that airports can collect data on who has been vaccinated and the type of vaccine used.

Photo of planes at Auckland airport, New Zealand

Auckland Airport, New Zealand

Douglas Bagg

The billion-dollar question: Will we fly less?

At the end of the day, even with all these (mostly positive) changes that we've seen take shape over the past 18 months, the industry faces major uncertainty about whether air travel will ever return to the pre-COVID levels. Not only are people wary about being in crowded and closed airplanes, but the worth of long-distance business travel in particular is being questioned as many have seen that meetings can function remotely, via Zoom and other online apps.

Trying to forecast the future, experts point to the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks as at least a partial blueprint for what a recovery might look like in the years ahead. Twenty years ago, as passenger enthusiasm for flying waned amid security fears following the attacks, airlines were forced to cancel flights and put planes into storage.

40% of Swedes intend to travel less

According to McKinsey, leisure trips and visits to family and friends rebounded faster than business flights, which took four years to return to pre-crisis levels in the UK. This time too, business travel is expected to lag, with the consulting firm estimating only 80% recovery of pre-pandemic levels by 2024.

But the COVID-19 crisis also came at a time when passengers were already rethinking their travel habits due to climate concerns, while worldwide lockdowns have ushered in a new era of remote working. In Sweden, a survey by the country's largest research company shows that 40% of the population intend to travel less even after the pandemic ends. Similarly in the UK, nearly 60% of adults said during the spring they intended to fly less after being vaccinated against COVID-19 — with climate change cited as a top reason for people wanting to reduce their number of flights, according to research by the University of Bristol.

At the same time, major companies are increasingly forced to face the music of the environmental movement, with several corporations rolling out climate targets over the last few years. Today, five of the 10 biggest buyers of corporate air travel in the US are technology companies: Amazon, IBM, Google, Apple and Microsoft, according to Taipei Times, all of which have set individual targets for environmental stewardship. As such, the era of flying across the Atlantic for a two-hour executive meeting is likely in its dying days.

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