Society

When Your Dog Needs A Shrink

Unruly -- and unhappy -- dogs and cats can be a real nightmare for their human masters. One option? Therapy. Specialized dog and cat psychologists can work wonders with perturbed pets, but only when their owners are willing to open up as well.

Tied up and feeling down (Mr. T)
Tied up and feeling down (Mr. T)
Pascale Senk

Right now, about 10% of dogs are suffering from mental disorders. The same goes for us human beings. And 50% of canines are prone to mental illnesses at least once in their lives. Again, the same goes for us. At certain points in their lives they may feel anxious, depressed and have phobias, just as we do. All this can ruin not only their lives, but the lives of their masters as well.

Still, there are some specific disorders that are uniquely human. "Schizophrenia rarely affects animals. Psychopathology never does," says Joel Dehasse, veterinary expert in cat and dog behaviors in Brussels and author of Mon animal a-t-il besoin d'un psy? (Does my pet need to go to a psychiatrist?).

Nonetheless, behavioral problems that occur when the pets are with their masters or with their peers are very common. Here is one example: Mouse is a cute Anatolian Shepherd that weighs 60 kilograms. As he has grown, Mouse has become more and more aggressive with small male dogs he encounters while out walking with his master. Little by little, what had been nice relaxing moments for the master have become major nightmares. Mouse now has to be muzzled. His owner, always on the alert, has to make sure others dogs always stay 10 meters away.

"Some masters cannot stand it anymore. That's when they decide to bring their pets to a psychiatrist," explains Bruno Legrand, a dog trainer in the Loiret in northern France – and a teacher at the National Veterinary School in Maisons-Alfort. "What the masters don't know is that they will have to see the psychiatrist as well," he adds.

This is something particular to dog and cat therapy: vets have to examine the pet while also taking into account the subjective way their masters see them, in other words the masters' distorting prisms. "In most cases, animals project how their masters feel. At the first therapy session, the psychiatrist spends five minutes with the dog and 50 minutes with its master," Dehasse says.

Then, for instance, the vet will ask Mouse's master what kind of relations he has with small dogs. The approach is very close to the systemic analysis used with children who go to see a psychiatrist because their parents want to. No wonder Dehasse also knows a lot about family therapy. "People now consider pets to be part of their families," he says.

Nature or nurture?

Another similarity is that behavioral therapy for pets always starts with an inquiry about the causes of the disorder: Is it genetic, something proper to that particular breed, or is there something that happened in the animal's past life that may explain its aggressive behavior? Does Mouse think that it is playing with the small dogs he is actually attacking? Is it behavior that is programmed by the dog's genes? Or was Mouse taken away from its mother too early after he was born?

Once the causes of the disorder are recognized, the vets can prescribe medicines in some cases. But their first priority is to encourage the pets to behave differently. The vets have to lead the animals into a new "lifestyle" – something that is satisfying both for the pet and its master. "Dogs cannot talk like human beings, so we try to move forward relying on their various life experiences," Dehasse explains.

Thus, Mouse will be taught to look his master in the eye whenever it hears the mere order "Look." As result, the master can control his dog's attention, even in the streets.

"An animal only needs to go to therapy for one to six months to change its behavior," Legrand says. "The results are even better when the master is very much aware of the problem, and when he or she puts daily efforts into helping his or her pet."

But if the master does not know the basics about the behavioral mechanism of his or her pet's breed and about its needs, there can be serious consequences. "People just want romantic images of fictional dogs," says Legrand.

Not knowing, for example, that your dog needs to run and to chew at least 5 hours a day, or spoiling it rotten, may have serious consequences. Indeed, 95% of phobic or aggressive pets, if they don't undergo therapy, will be abandoned, end up in the ASPCA or be put down.

Read the original article in French.

Photo - Mr. T

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Society

Dutch Cities Have Been Secretly Probing Mosques Since 2013

Revelations of a nationally funded clandestine operation within 10 municipalities in the Netherlands to keep tabs on mosques and Muslim organizations after a rise in radicalization eight years ago.

The Nasser mosque in Veenendaal, one of the mosques reportedly surveilled

Meike Eijsberg

At least ten Dutch towns and cities have secretly used a private agency to probe mosques and other local religious organizations, Amsterdam-based daily het NRC reports in an exclusive investigation.

The clandestine operation — funded by NCTV, the National Security Services, the Netherlands' leading counter-terrorism agency — was prompted by the social unrest and uncertainty following multiple terror attacks in 2013, and a rise in Islamic radicalization.


The NCTV, which advises and financially supports municipalities in countering radicalization, put the municipalities in touch with Nuance by Training and Advice (Nuance door Trainingen en Advies, NTA), a private research agency based in Deventer, Netherlands. Among the institutions targeted by the investigations, which came at a cost of circa 500,000 euros, were the Al Mouahidin mosque in the central Dutch town of Ede, and the Nasser mosque east of the city of Utrecht, according to NRC.

Photo of people standing on prayer mats inside a Dutch mosque

Praying inside a Dutch mosque.

Hollandse-Hoogte/ZUMA

Broken trust in Islamic community

Unlike public officials, the private agency can enter the mosques to clandestinely research the situation. In this case, the agents observed activity, talk to visitors, administrators, and religious leaders, and investigated what they do and say on social media.

All findings then wound up in a secret report which includes personal details about what the administrators and teachers studied, who their relatives are, with whom they argued, and how often they had contact with authorities in foreign countries, like Morocco.

Leaders of the Muslim organizations that were secretly probed say they feel betrayed.

It is unclear whether the practice is legal, which is why several members of the Dutch Parliament are now demanding clarification from the outgoing Minister of Justice and Security, Ferd Grapperhaus, who is said to be involved.

"The ease with which the government violates (fundamental) rights when it comes to Islam or Muslims is shocking," Stephan van Baarle, member of the leftist party DENK, told De Volkskrant, another Dutch newspaper.

Leaders of the Muslim organizations that were secretly probed say they feel betrayed. Hassan Saidi, director of one of the mosques investigated, said that the relationship with the local municipality had been good. "This puts a huge dent in the trust I'd had in the municipality," he told the Dutch public broadcaster NOS.

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