Sources

The Making Of Germany's New Edition Of Mein Kampf

Almost 2,000 pages, 5,000 commentaries, a huge introduction: The Institute of Contemporary History has finally released details on its new edition of Hitler’s "Mein Kampf" planned for 2016.

An copy of Hitler's "Mein Kampf" at a Nuremberg Museum
An copy of Hitler's "Mein Kampf" at a Nuremberg Museum
Sven Felix Kellerhoff

BERLIN — Those facing powerful enemies should always seek powerful allies. That, in a nutshell, is the mission facing Magnus Brechtken, a Munich man who took on the controversial task of re-releasing Adolph Hitler's Mein Kampf.

Brechtken is vice-president of the city's renowned Institute of Contemporary History (IfZ). In 2012, the Free State of Bavaria, which holds the copyright on Mein Kampf until Dec. 31 2015, commissioned the IfZ to edit the infamous book in a academically critical fashion. A year and a half later, under orders of the minister-president of Bavaria, Horst Seehofer (CSU), support for the project was withdrawn. The minister of justice in Munich, Winfried Bausback, has also come out against the undertaking.

Brechtken and the IfZ are determined, nevertheless, to see the job through. Now they've gone so far as to present details of the re-release to the general public, whose support Brechtken is hoping to court.

The eight editors involved in the nearly completed project say they are determined to delivering scientifically sound work. This new edition will have more than 2,000 pages, as opposed to Hitler's original 800, and will be split into two lengthy volumes.

Each page will contain the original first and second edition text (1925-1926) in one column and text variations that evolved over the years in a second column. To achieve this, the team compared six of the more than 1,000 German editions published until 1944 word for word. Often there were only minimal discrepancies from the original due to different printing processes. For a while, during World War II, up to 16 printing houses were producing Mein Kampf at the same time. Not really surprising given a total circulation of 12.4 million, with two thirds of that produced after 1939.

The new edition will also contain extensive annotations to the left and beneath the original text. Since the inception of this project, the team of editors, under the leadership of Christian Hartmann, has managed to accumulate over 5,000 annotations regarding single sentences found in Mein Kampf. They are sometimes shorter but more often than not considerably longer than the original section of the book to which they refer.

Mein Kampf is a hodgepodge collection of prejudices, misunderstandings and pure hatred. Yet it was quite effective at the time. To understand the effect of this hate campaign, Hartmann and his team are determined to analyse it under the light of its intellectual background. They also demonstrate how Hitler plagiarized other publications and contradicts himself.

With its thousands of annotations, the new edition promises to be a very difficult read. And yet it's sure to get noticed. Mein Kampf is, after all, one of the most famous book titles of all times. And because it is shrouded in mystery as a forbidden book, it has a special appeal to anti-Semites, right-wing extremists and other riff-raff who are not partial to democracy.

The IfZ has made it its mission to demonstrate just how awfully wrong and redundant Mein Kampf is and always has been. In that way the Institute hopes to destroy any lingering influence the book might have. The edition is also supposed to provide solid basis for other authors, academics or journalists who want to tackle Hitler's work.

How successful Brechtken and his colleagues are with this ambitious project remains to be seen, especially since distribution is likely to be limited. The books are also expected to be expensive (up to 160 euros for both volumes) due to the high print and binding quality that will be needed so that they can be incorporated into university librarys.

Plans are in place to eventually make an Internet edition available one year after publication. There has also been talk about possible cooperation with the Federal Central Office for Political Education.

The book is to be published on Jan. 4, 2016, i.e. the first working day following the expiration of its current copyright. Only then will we see how the Free State of Bavaria reacts and whether public persecutors will indeed be sent forth.

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Future

7 Ways The Pandemic May Change The Airline Industry For Good

Will flying be greener? More comfortable? Less frequent? As the world eyes a post-COVID reality, we look at ways the airline industry has been changing through a pandemic that has devastated air travel.

Ready for (a different kind of) takeoff?

Carl-Johan Karlsson

It's hard to overstate the damage the pandemic has had on the airline industry, with global revenues dropping by 40% in 2020 and dozens of airlines around the world filing for bankruptcy. One moment last year when the gravity became particularly apparent was when Asian carriers (in countries with low COVID-19 rates) began offering "flights to nowhere" — starting and ending at the same airport as a way to earn some cash from would-be travelers who missed the in-flight experience.

More than a year later today, experts believe that air traffic won't return to normal levels until 2024.


But beyond the financial woes, the unprecedented slowdown in air travel may bring some silver linings as key aspects of the industry are bound to change once back in full spin, with some longer-term effects on aviation already emerging. Here are some major transformations to expect in the coming years:

Cleaner aviation fuel

The U.S. administration of President Joe Biden and the airline industry recently agreed to the ambitious goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050. Already in a decade, the U.S. aims to produce three billion gallons of sustainable fuel — about one-tenth of current total use — from waste, plants and other organic matter.

While greening the world's road transport has long been at the top of the climate agenda, aviation is not even included under the Paris Agreement. But with air travel responsible for roughly 12% of all CO2 emissions from transport, and stricter international regulation on the horizon, the industry is increasingly seeking sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based fuel.

Fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund.

In Germany, state broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports that the world's first factory producing CO2-neutral kerosene recently started operations in the town of Wertle, in Lower Saxony. The plant, for which Lufthansa is set to become the pilot customer, will produce CO2-neutral kerosene through a circular production cycle incorporating sustainable and green energy sources and raw materials. Energy is supplied through wind turbines from the surrounding area, while the fuel's main ingredients are water and waste-generated CO2 coming from a nearby biogas plant.

Farther north, Norwegian Air Shuttle has recently submitted a recommendation to the government that fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund aimed at developing cleaner aviation fuel, according to Norwegian news site E24. The airline also suggested that the government significantly reduce the tax burden on the industry over a longer period to allow airlines to recover from the pandemic.

Black-and-white photo of an ariplane shot from below flying across the sky and leaving condensation trails

High-flying ambitions for the sector

Joel & Jasmin Førestbird

Hydrogen and electrification

Some airline manufacturers are betting on hydrogen, with research suggesting that the abundant resource has the potential to match the flight distances and payload of a current fossil-fuel aircraft. If derived from renewable resources like sun and wind power, hydrogen — with an energy-density almost three times that of gasoline or diesel — could work as a fully sustainable aviation fuel that emits only water.

One example comes out of California, where fuel-cell specialist HyPoint has entered a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Piasecki Aircraft Corporation to manufacture 650-kilowatt hydrogen fuel cell systems for aircrafts. According to HyPoint, the system — scheduled for commercial availability product by 2025 — will have four times the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries and double the specific power of existing hydrogen fuel-cell systems.

Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce is looking to smash the speed record of electrical flights with a newly designed 23-foot-long model. Christened the Spirit of Innovation, the small plane took off for the first time earlier this month and successfully managed a 15-minute long test flight. However, the company has announced plans to fly the machine faster than 300 mph (480 km/h) before the year is out, and also to sell similar propulsion systems to companies developing electrical air taxis or small commuter planes.

New aircraft designs

Airlines are also upgrading aircraft design to become more eco-friendly. Air France just received its first upgrade of a single-aisle, medium-haul aircraft in 33 years. Fleet director Nicolas Bertrand told French daily Les Echos that the new A220 — that will replace the old A320 model — will reduce operating costs by 10%, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% and noise footprint by 34%.

International first class will be very nearly a thing of the past.

The pandemic has also ushered in a new era of consumer demand where privacy and personal space is put above luxury. The retirement of older aircraft caused by COVID-19 means that international first class — already in steady decline over the last decades — will be very nearly a thing of the past. Instead, airplane manufacturers around the world (including Delta, China Eastern, JetBlue, British Airways and Shanghai Airlines) are betting on a new generation of super-business minisuites where passengers have a privacy door. The idea, which was introduced by Qatar Airways in 2017, is to offer more personal space than in regular business class but without the lavishness of first class.

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

commons.wikimedia.org

Hygiene rankings  

Rome's Fiumicino Airport has become the first in the world to earn "the COVID-19 5-Star Airport Rating" from Skytrax, an international airline and airport review and ranking site, Italian daily La Repubblica reports. Skytrax, which publishes a yearly annual ranking of the world's best airports and issues the World Airport Awards, this year created a second list to specifically call out airports with the best health and hygiene standards.

Smoother check-in

​The pandemic has also accelerated the shift towards contactless traveling, with more airports harnessing the power of biometrics — such as facial recognition or fever screening — to reduce touchpoints and human contact. Similar technology can also be used to more efficiently scan physical objects, such as explosive detection. Ultimately, passengers will be able to "check-in" and go through a security screening anywhere at the airports, removing queues and bottlenecks.

Data privacy issues

​However, as pointed out in Canadian publication The Lawyer's Daily, increased use of AI and biometrics also means increased privacy concerns. For example, health and hygiene measures like digital vaccine passports also mean that airports can collect data on who has been vaccinated and the type of vaccine used.

Photo of planes at Auckland airport, New Zealand

Auckland Airport, New Zealand

Douglas Bagg

The billion-dollar question: Will we fly less?

At the end of the day, even with all these (mostly positive) changes that we've seen take shape over the past 18 months, the industry faces major uncertainty about whether air travel will ever return to the pre-COVID levels. Not only are people wary about being in crowded and closed airplanes, but the worth of long-distance business travel in particular is being questioned as many have seen that meetings can function remotely, via Zoom and other online apps.

Trying to forecast the future, experts point to the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks as at least a partial blueprint for what a recovery might look like in the years ahead. Twenty years ago, as passenger enthusiasm for flying waned amid security fears following the attacks, airlines were forced to cancel flights and put planes into storage.

40% of Swedes intend to travel less

According to McKinsey, leisure trips and visits to family and friends rebounded faster than business flights, which took four years to return to pre-crisis levels in the UK. This time too, business travel is expected to lag, with the consulting firm estimating only 80% recovery of pre-pandemic levels by 2024.

But the COVID-19 crisis also came at a time when passengers were already rethinking their travel habits due to climate concerns, while worldwide lockdowns have ushered in a new era of remote working. In Sweden, a survey by the country's largest research company shows that 40% of the population intend to travel less even after the pandemic ends. Similarly in the UK, nearly 60% of adults said during the spring they intended to fly less after being vaccinated against COVID-19 — with climate change cited as a top reason for people wanting to reduce their number of flights, according to research by the University of Bristol.

At the same time, major companies are increasingly forced to face the music of the environmental movement, with several corporations rolling out climate targets over the last few years. Today, five of the 10 biggest buyers of corporate air travel in the US are technology companies: Amazon, IBM, Google, Apple and Microsoft, according to Taipei Times, all of which have set individual targets for environmental stewardship. As such, the era of flying across the Atlantic for a two-hour executive meeting is likely in its dying days.

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