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Germany

The Greek Ideal And The Making Of Modern Germany

Digging into the intellectual history of Germany and Greece, ancient and otherwise, adds yet another level of irony to Europe's current struggles.

The Greek-inspired Brandenburg Gate in 1928
The Greek-inspired Brandenburg Gate in 1928
Joëlle Kuntz

GENEVA — In 1833, Munich scholar Friedrich Thiersch was preparing the Germans for the election of a Bavarian king for newly independent Greece. "Through its genius and its character, its values and its institutions, Greece looks like no other part of Europe," he wrote. "The people, however, need to be reformed. Everything over there is archaic and dilapidated. Regeneration is possible only by introducing the laws and the usages of a civilization that is foreign to their territory."

This was the German in him speaking. But history and his love of Greece intervened. "Fortunately, there's another way to proceed, without excluding the Greek originality: studying the country, penetrating its character, determining its real needs," Thiersch continued. "We will then find a new force within the people, not by imposing foreign customs, but by developing local institutions and the strength of national identity."

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Ideas

Artificial Satellite Pollution, Perils For Biodiversity In Space And On Earth

Exploiting space resources and littering it with satellite and other anthropogenic objects is endangering the ecosystem of space, which also damages the earth and its creatures below.

Image of the small satellite NanoRacks-Remove Debris satellite deployed into space by the ISS

Thomas Lewton

Outer space isn’t what most people would think of as an ecosystem. Its barren and frigid void isn’t exactly akin to the verdant canopies of a rainforest or to the iridescent shoals that swim among coral cities. But if we are to become better stewards of the increasingly frenzied band of orbital space above our atmosphere, a shift to thinking of it as an ecosystem — as part of an interconnected system of living things interacting with their physical environment — may be just what we need.

Last month, in the journal Nature Astronomy, a collective of 11 astrophysicists and space scientists proposed we do just that, citing the proliferation of anthropogenic space objects. Thousands of satellites currently orbit the Earth, with commercial internet providers such as SpaceX’s Starlink launching new ones at a dizzying pace. Based on proposals for projects in the future, the authors note, the number could reach more than a hundred thousand within the decade. Artificial satellites, long a vital part of the space ecosystem, have arguably become an invasive species.

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