Living Together Apart: When Divorce Makes It Too Expensive To Move Out

As a consequence of the bad economy and high real estate prices, more and more couples continue to share the same home, even after they divorce.

Living on the wife's couch (Plutor)
Living on the wife's couch (Plutor)
Catherine Rollot

PARIS - Some take over the couch or sleep in the guestroom; others still share the conjugal bed, albeit in an icy atmosphere. As divorce has gone mainstream, more and more separated couples continue to live under the same roof, at least temporarily.

The bad economy, the high cost of real estate and fear of a social downgrade has made the financial cost of separations even harder to bear. These forced cohabitations are still the exception, but could become more common as long-term economy problems grow.

As this new trend is often concealed, it's difficult to quantify it. But what is sure is that it comes from the U.S., where it's called "living together apart" and mostly affects the poor. "In poor neighborhoods, studies reveal that the lack of financial resources is the main reason for these arrangements," explains sociologist Claude Martin, research director at the French CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research).

"In the U.S., this involuntary cohabitation is sometimes the only way to avoid an even worse situation- like being forced into homelessness. It allows to save money and maintain a link between parents and children," he adds. An estimated 10% of impoverished families are concerned by this phenomenon, which increased during the subprime mortgage crisis.

Too expensive to divorce

Claude Martin tried to understand if the same explanations applied in France. In spite of a very different sample group – middle class couples in majority – he came to the same conclusion: the fear of financial consequences following a divorce. "The aftermath of a separation is too expensive for many French couples. So they stay together because they can't find a new house or because they don't want to divide up what they had bought together," Claude Martin explains.

Every day, Benoît Delesalle, a Parisian notary, sees divorcing couples who are just realizing how much their separation will cost them: "A few days ago, I had a couple who was in the middle of a crisis. They wanted advice on how to make ends meet in case of separation. They left my office saying they were going to rethink about divorcing."

Benoît Delesalle's colleague Christelle Dewailly, confirms another trend: "Since the increase of the "asset division tax," many people have postponed or cancelled their separation." This tax is collected by the State after a divorce, when the former married couple shares his assets. It rose from 1.1 % to 2.5 % on January 1st of this year. In addition to notary's charges, the asset division tax weighs heavily on the divorce bill and in some cases, also delays the emotional separation.

The real estate market isn't helping

According to sociologist Sylvie Cadolle, "the high cost of real estate explains why separations are more complicated nowadays than 40 years ago." "When there are children involved and that the parents need to find two apartments close to each other to prevent the children from being uprooted, life becomes more complicated – and even more if there isn't a high budget," adds Bernard Cadeau, CEO of the Orpi real estate agencies network.

Selling a home can also be a difficult feat, which also explains that some couples have to postpone their physical separation. "Since a few months now, it takes 10% more time to sell a home," Bernard Cadeau explains. And even if the average time to sell a home is three months, it sometimes needs much more time to find a buyer, particularly if the price does not match the market. "Sometimes, there are disagreements within the couple on the price at which the house should be sold or on the sale strategy and it paralyses the process."

If financial issues render separations more difficult, they aren't preventing people from getting divorced. The number of divorces has constantly increased since the 1960s – 130,900 cases in 2011 – without counting separations and civil unions.

Other reasons can also postpone a separation: "The need to protect the children or the hope of a reconciliation can also explain these living together apart cases," explains Claude Martin. Nonetheless, these couples need to respect each other or else the cohabitation is doomed to failure.

Read the original article in French

Photo - Plutor

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7 Ways The Pandemic May Change The Airline Industry For Good

Will flying be greener? More comfortable? Less frequent? As the world eyes a post-COVID reality, we look at ways the airline industry has been changing through a pandemic that has devastated air travel.

Ready for (a different kind of) takeoff?

Carl-Johan Karlsson

It's hard to overstate the damage the pandemic has had on the airline industry, with global revenues dropping by 40% in 2020 and dozens of airlines around the world filing for bankruptcy. One moment last year when the gravity became particularly apparent was when Asian carriers (in countries with low COVID-19 rates) began offering "flights to nowhere" — starting and ending at the same airport as a way to earn some cash from would-be travelers who missed the in-flight experience.

More than a year later today, experts believe that air traffic won't return to normal levels until 2024.

But beyond the financial woes, the unprecedented slowdown in air travel may bring some silver linings as key aspects of the industry are bound to change once back in full spin, with some longer-term effects on aviation already emerging. Here are some major transformations to expect in the coming years:

Cleaner aviation fuel

The U.S. administration of President Joe Biden and the airline industry recently agreed to the ambitious goal of replacing all jet fuel with sustainable alternatives by 2050. Already in a decade, the U.S. aims to produce three billion gallons of sustainable fuel — about one-tenth of current total use — from waste, plants and other organic matter.

While greening the world's road transport has long been at the top of the climate agenda, aviation is not even included under the Paris Agreement. But with air travel responsible for roughly 12% of all CO2 emissions from transport, and stricter international regulation on the horizon, the industry is increasingly seeking sustainable alternatives to petroleum-based fuel.

Fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund.

In Germany, state broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports that the world's first factory producing CO2-neutral kerosene recently started operations in the town of Wertle, in Lower Saxony. The plant, for which Lufthansa is set to become the pilot customer, will produce CO2-neutral kerosene through a circular production cycle incorporating sustainable and green energy sources and raw materials. Energy is supplied through wind turbines from the surrounding area, while the fuel's main ingredients are water and waste-generated CO2 coming from a nearby biogas plant.

Farther north, Norwegian Air Shuttle has recently submitted a recommendation to the government that fees imposed on the airline industry should be funneled into a climate fund aimed at developing cleaner aviation fuel, according to Norwegian news site E24. The airline also suggested that the government significantly reduce the tax burden on the industry over a longer period to allow airlines to recover from the pandemic.

Black-and-white photo of an ariplane shot from below flying across the sky and leaving condensation trails

High-flying ambitions for the sector

Joel & Jasmin Førestbird

Hydrogen and electrification

Some airline manufacturers are betting on hydrogen, with research suggesting that the abundant resource has the potential to match the flight distances and payload of a current fossil-fuel aircraft. If derived from renewable resources like sun and wind power, hydrogen — with an energy-density almost three times that of gasoline or diesel — could work as a fully sustainable aviation fuel that emits only water.

One example comes out of California, where fuel-cell specialist HyPoint has entered a partnership with Pennsylvania-based Piasecki Aircraft Corporation to manufacture 650-kilowatt hydrogen fuel cell systems for aircrafts. According to HyPoint, the system — scheduled for commercial availability product by 2025 — will have four times the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries and double the specific power of existing hydrogen fuel-cell systems.

Meanwhile, Rolls-Royce is looking to smash the speed record of electrical flights with a newly designed 23-foot-long model. Christened the Spirit of Innovation, the small plane took off for the first time earlier this month and successfully managed a 15-minute long test flight. However, the company has announced plans to fly the machine faster than 300 mph (480 km/h) before the year is out, and also to sell similar propulsion systems to companies developing electrical air taxis or small commuter planes.

New aircraft designs

Airlines are also upgrading aircraft design to become more eco-friendly. Air France just received its first upgrade of a single-aisle, medium-haul aircraft in 33 years. Fleet director Nicolas Bertrand told French daily Les Echos that the new A220 — that will replace the old A320 model — will reduce operating costs by 10%, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 20% and noise footprint by 34%.

International first class will be very nearly a thing of the past.

The pandemic has also ushered in a new era of consumer demand where privacy and personal space is put above luxury. The retirement of older aircraft caused by COVID-19 means that international first class — already in steady decline over the last decades — will be very nearly a thing of the past. Instead, airplane manufacturers around the world (including Delta, China Eastern, JetBlue, British Airways and Shanghai Airlines) are betting on a new generation of super-business minisuites where passengers have a privacy door. The idea, which was introduced by Qatar Airways in 2017, is to offer more personal space than in regular business class but without the lavishness of first class.

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

Aerial view of Rome's Fiumicino airport

Hygiene rankings  

Rome's Fiumicino Airport has become the first in the world to earn "the COVID-19 5-Star Airport Rating" from Skytrax, an international airline and airport review and ranking site, Italian daily La Repubblica reports. Skytrax, which publishes a yearly annual ranking of the world's best airports and issues the World Airport Awards, this year created a second list to specifically call out airports with the best health and hygiene standards.

Smoother check-in

​The pandemic has also accelerated the shift towards contactless traveling, with more airports harnessing the power of biometrics — such as facial recognition or fever screening — to reduce touchpoints and human contact. Similar technology can also be used to more efficiently scan physical objects, such as explosive detection. Ultimately, passengers will be able to "check-in" and go through a security screening anywhere at the airports, removing queues and bottlenecks.

Data privacy issues

​However, as pointed out in Canadian publication The Lawyer's Daily, increased use of AI and biometrics also means increased privacy concerns. For example, health and hygiene measures like digital vaccine passports also mean that airports can collect data on who has been vaccinated and the type of vaccine used.

Photo of planes at Auckland airport, New Zealand

Auckland Airport, New Zealand

Douglas Bagg

The billion-dollar question: Will we fly less?

At the end of the day, even with all these (mostly positive) changes that we've seen take shape over the past 18 months, the industry faces major uncertainty about whether air travel will ever return to the pre-COVID levels. Not only are people wary about being in crowded and closed airplanes, but the worth of long-distance business travel in particular is being questioned as many have seen that meetings can function remotely, via Zoom and other online apps.

Trying to forecast the future, experts point to the years following the 9/11 terrorist attacks as at least a partial blueprint for what a recovery might look like in the years ahead. Twenty years ago, as passenger enthusiasm for flying waned amid security fears following the attacks, airlines were forced to cancel flights and put planes into storage.

40% of Swedes intend to travel less

According to McKinsey, leisure trips and visits to family and friends rebounded faster than business flights, which took four years to return to pre-crisis levels in the UK. This time too, business travel is expected to lag, with the consulting firm estimating only 80% recovery of pre-pandemic levels by 2024.

But the COVID-19 crisis also came at a time when passengers were already rethinking their travel habits due to climate concerns, while worldwide lockdowns have ushered in a new era of remote working. In Sweden, a survey by the country's largest research company shows that 40% of the population intend to travel less even after the pandemic ends. Similarly in the UK, nearly 60% of adults said during the spring they intended to fly less after being vaccinated against COVID-19 — with climate change cited as a top reason for people wanting to reduce their number of flights, according to research by the University of Bristol.

At the same time, major companies are increasingly forced to face the music of the environmental movement, with several corporations rolling out climate targets over the last few years. Today, five of the 10 biggest buyers of corporate air travel in the US are technology companies: Amazon, IBM, Google, Apple and Microsoft, according to Taipei Times, all of which have set individual targets for environmental stewardship. As such, the era of flying across the Atlantic for a two-hour executive meeting is likely in its dying days.

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