Islamic Art And Europe: From Description To Abstraction

The Lyon Museum of Fine Arts connects Islamic arts and modern Europe.

Jean-Léon Gérôme's The Bath.
Jean-Léon Gérôme's The Bath.
Philippe Dagen

LYON - Bonaparte's expedition to Egypt, the conquest of Algeria during Louis-Philippe's rule, the formation of the British Colonial Empire, were just some of a plethora of European journeys and explorations during the 19th century. During this period, Westerners increasingly traveled to the East, the immense stretch of the world from Morocco to India. They visited, they did business, and they took power.

Such events would inevitably influence the arts. The results are on display in the exhibit called "The Oriental Genius: Modern Europe and Islamic Arts," put together by Rémy Labrusse at the Lyon Museum of Fine Arts.

Nearly 500 objects and works of art, from architectural building plans to paintings and an enameled chalice, the exhibit looks at a century of curious objects and artistic borrowings.

The subject matter is so vast that however rich the exhibit, it remains incomplete. For example, Jean-François Champollion's (an early 19th century French classical scholar), Gustave Flaubert's (mid-19th century French writer) and Maxime Du Camp's (late-19th century French writer and photographer) travels to Egypt are not included. The invasion of Algeria is excluded too, as part of a more general choice to leave out anything with an explicitly political and religious context.

The first part of the exhibit displays the initial discovery of the regions, their cultures, monuments, and styles. The pieces were first part of private collections before becoming part of public ones. One of the major collections belonged to the Duke of Blacas, and was bought in whole by the British Museum in 1866, as the French museums were not interested in them.

In this first section, there are engraving anthologies and descriptive volumes. Travel literature abounds alongside miniatures of the monuments of Istanbul, Cairo, Isfahan, Granada and Cordoba, cities made popular thanks to the sculptors' artwork.

The next section belongs to the works of Orientalist painters who bring together rather life-like documentary elements and staging where the picturesque, the pathetic, and the erotic are supposed to attract attention. This technique, which art historian Christine Peltre has recently studied, created a prosperous and global image industry.

Among these famous artists is painter Jean-Léon Gérôme, the son-in-law of Léon Goupil, an editor of reproductions for the leading 19th century art dealership in France, Goupil & Cie, and the brother-in-law of Albert Goupil, a passionate buyer of "oriental" pieces for the same dealership. The brothers-in-law went on an expedition in Egypt in 1868, one in search of inspiration for his future work, and the other looking to expand his collection.

The painting hall created around Henri Regnault's painting called The Execution without Judgment under the Moorish Kings of Grenada, is an inventory of the fantasies and stereotypes carried by Orientalism. In other words, the "Oriental," also known as the Muslim or the Arab, can only be either cruel and fanatical, or spineless and lustful.

The Oriental woman lives in a harem and spends the day bathing. All have black slaves whose skin creates beautiful contrasts of colors with blue and white ceramics and scarlet rugs. Gazing at the canvases, it's difficult to imagine that these racist clichés were spread far and wide and for so long without disturbing many people – at least not the painters or the amateurs.

In the third and final section, the exhibit compares these sad images with the attentive Islamophilia of artists who, staying away from the easy picturesque and mercantile art, studied calligraphy and wall and fabric patterns so as to renew European decorative arts. British artists such as William Morris or John Henry Dearle and French artists such as Edmond Duthoit, Léon Parvillée and Jules Bourgoin all combined elements of a graphical grammar and rhythm with a complexity that defies the eye. The onlooker gets lost in the interlaced design and the orthogonal compositions that are meticulously calculated.

The exhibition dedicates its final hall to approximately 30 works by Paul Klee, his works giving off the same air of diligent attention to detail as those in the final section. The works on display are directly or implicitly related to his trip to Tunisia in April of 1914.

Just when you think you've exhausted the exploration, the last room offers some minor miracles: pieces of fanciful arabesques between pictogram and calligraphy, country scenes absorbed in watercolor clouds, abstractions of a perfect harmony.

" Le Génie de l'Orient. L'Europe moderne et les arts de l'islam ". Musée des beaux-arts, 20, place des Terreaux, Lyon 1er. Tél. : 04-72-10-17-40. Until July 4.

Photo - HarshLight

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The True Horrors Behind 7 Haunted Locations Around The World

With Halloween arriving, we have dug up the would-be ghosts of documented evil and bloodshed from the past.

Inside Poveglia Island's abandoned asylum

Laure Gautherin and Carl-Johan Karlsson

When Hallows Eve was first introduced as a Celtic festival some 2,000 years ago, bonfires and costumes were seen as a legitimate way to ward off ghosts and evil spirits. Today of course, with science and logic being real ghostbusters, spine-chilling tales of haunted forests, abandoned asylums and deserted graveyards have rather become a way to add some mystery and suspense to our lives.

And yet there are still spooky places around the world that have something more than legend attached to them. From Spain to Uzbekistan and Australia, these locations prove that haunting lore is sometimes rooted in very real, and often terrible events.

Shahr-e Gholghola, City of Screams - Afghanistan

photo of  ruins of Shahr-e Gholghola,

The ruins of Shahr-e Gholghola, the City of Screams, in Afghanistan

Dai He/Xinhua via ZUMA Wire

According to locals, ghosts from this ancient royal citadel located in the Valley of Bamyan, 150 miles northwest of Kabul, have been screaming for 800 years. You can hear them from miles away, at twilight, when they relive their massacre.

In the spring 1221, the fortress built by Buddhist Ghorids in the 6th century became the theater of the final battle between Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire, and the Mongol Horde led by Genghis Khan. It is said that Khan's beloved grandson, Mutakhan, had been killed on his mission to sack Bamyan. To avenge him, the Mongol leader went himself and ordered to kill every living creature in the city, children included.

The ruins today bear the name of Shahr-e Gholghola, meaning City of Screams or City of Sorrows. The archeological site, rich in Afghan history, is open to the public and though its remaining walls stay quiet during the day, locals say that the night brings the echoes of fear and agony. Others claim the place comes back to life eight centuries ago, and one can hear the bustle of the city and people calling each other.

Gettysburg, Civil War battlefield - U.S.

photo of rocks and trees in Gettysburg

View of the battlefields from Little Round Top, Gettysburg, PA, USA


Even ghosts non-believers agree there is something eerie about Gettysbury. The city in the state of Pennsylvania is now one of the most popular destinations in the U.S. for spirits and paranormal activities sight-seeing; and many visitors report they witness exactly what they came for: sounds of drums and gunshots, spooky encounters and camera malfunctions in one specific spot… just to name a few!

The Battle of Gettysburg, for which President Abraham Lincoln wrote his best known public address, is considered a turning point in the Civil War that led to the Union's victory. It lasted three days, from July 1st to July 3rd, 1863, but it accounts for the worst casualties of the entire conflict, with 23,000 on the Union side (3,100 men killed) and 28,000 for the Confederates (including 3,900 deaths). Thousands of soldiers were buried on the battlefield in mass graves - without proper rites, legend says - before being relocated to the National Military Park Cemetery for the Unionists.

Since then, legend has it, their restless souls wander, unaware the war has ended. You can find them everywhere, on the battlefield or in the town's preserved Inns and hotels turned into field hospitals back then.

Belchite, Civil War massacre - Spain

photo of sunset of old Belchite

Old Belchite, Spain

Belchite Town Council

Shy lost souls wandering and briefly appearing in front of visitors, unexplainable forces attracting some to specific places of the town, recorded noises of planes, gunshots and bombs, like forever echoes of a drama which left an open wound in Spanish history…

That wound, still unhealed, is the Spanish Civil War; and at its height in 1937, Belchite village, located in the Zaragoza Province in the northeast of Spain, represented a strategic objective of the Republican forces to take over the nearby capital city of Zaragoza.

Instead of being a simple step in their operation, it became the field of an intense battle opposing the loyalist army and that of General Francisco Franco's. Between August 24 and September 6, more than 5,000 people were killed, including half of Belchite's population. The town was left in rubble. As a way to illustrate the Republicans' violence, Franco decided to leave the old town in ruins and build a new Belchite nearby. All the survivors were relocated there, but they had to wait 15 years for it to be complete.

If nothing particular happens in new Belchite, home to around 1,500 residents, the remains of old Belchite offer their share of chilling ghost stories. Some visitors say they felt a presence, someone watching them, sudden change of temperatures and strange sounds. The ruins of the old village have been used as a film set for Terry Gilliam's The Adventures of Baron Munchausen - with the crew reporting the apparition of two women dressed in period costumes - and Guillermo del Toro's Pan's Labyrinth. And in October 1986, members of the television program "Cuarta Dimensión" (the 4th dimension) spent a night in Belchite and came back with some spooky recordings of war sounds.

Gur Emir, a conquerer’s mausoleum - Uzbekistan

photo of Gur Emir (Tomb of Timur) i

Gur Emir (Tomb of Timur) in Samarkand, Uzbekistan

Chris Bradley/Design Pics via ZUMA Wire

The news echoed through the streets and bazaars of Samarkand: "The Russian expedition will open the tomb of Tamerlane the Great. It will be our curse!" It was June 1941, and a small team of Soviet researchers began excavations in the Gur-Emir mausoleum in southeastern Uzbekistan.

The aim was to prove that the remains in the tomb did in fact belong to Tamerlane — the infamous 14th-century conqueror and first ruler of the Timurid dynasty who some historians say massacred 1% of the world's population in 1360.

Still, on June 20, despite protests from local residents and Muslim clergy, Tamerlame's tomb was cracked open — marked with the inscription: "When I Rise From the Dead, The World Shall Tremble."

Only two days later, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union, with the people of Samarkand linking it to the disturbing of Tamerlane's peace. Amid local protests, the excavation was immediately wrapped up and the remains of the Turkish/Mongol conqueror were sent to Moscow. The turning point in the war came with the victory in the Battle of Stalingrad — only a month after a superstitious Stalin ordered the return of Tamerlane's remains to Samarkand where the former emperor was re-buried with full honors.

Gamla Stan, a royal massacre - Sweden

a photo of The red house of Gamla Stan, Stockholm, Sweden

The red house of Gamla Stan, Stockholm, Sweden


After Danish King Kristian II successfully invaded Sweden and was anointed King in November 1520, the new ruler called Swedish leaders to join for festivities at the royal palace in Stockholm. At dusk, after three days of wine, beer and spectacles, Danish soldiers carrying lanterns and torches entered the great hall and imprisoned the gathered nobles who were considered potential opponents of the Danish king. In the days that followed, 92 people were swiftly sentenced to death, and either hanged or beheaded on Stortorget, the main square in Gamla Stan (Old Town).

Until this day, the Stockholm Bloodbath is considered one of the most brutal events in Scandinavian history, and some people have reported visions of blood flowing across the cobblestoned square in early November. A little over a century later, a red house on the square was rebuilt as a monument for the executed — fitted with 92 white stones for each slain man. Legend has it that should one of the stones be removed, the ghost of the represented will rise from the dead and haunt the streets of Stockholm for all eternity.

Port Arthur, gruesome prison - Australia

a photo of ort Arthur Prison Settlement, Tasmania, Australia

Port Arthur Prison Settlement, Tasmania, Australia

Flickr/Eli Duke

During its 47-year history as a penal settlement, Port Arthur in southern Tasmania earned a reputation as one of the most notorious prisons in the British Empire. The institution — known for a brutal slavery system and punishment of the most hardened criminals sent from the motherland— claimed the lives of more than 1,000 inmates until its closure in 1877.

Since then, documented stories have spanned the paranormal gamut: poltergeist prisoners terrorizing visitors, weeping children roaming the port and tourists running into a weeping 'lady in blue' (apparently the spirit of a woman who died in childbirth). The museum even has an 'incidence form' ready for anyone wanting to report an otherworldly event.

Poveglia Island, plague victims - Italy

a photo of Poveglia Island, Italy

Poveglia Island, Italy

Mirco Toniolo/ROPI via ZUMA Press

Located off the coast of Venice and Lido, Poveglia sadly reunites all the classical elements of a horror movie: plagues, mass burial ground and mental institute (from the 1920's).

During the bubonic plague and other subsequent pandemics, the island served as a quarantine station for the sick and anyone showing any signs of what could be Black Death contamination. Some 160,000 victims are thought to have died there and the seven acres of land became a mass burial ground so full that it is said that human ash makes up more than 50% of Poveglia's soil.

In 1922 a retirement home for the elderly — used as a clandestine mental institution— opened on the island and with it a fair amount of rumors involving torture of patients. The hospital and consequently the whole island was closed in 1968, leaving all the dead trapped off-land.

Poveglia's terrifying past earned it the nickname of 'Island of Ghosts'. Despite being strictly off-limits to visitors, the site has been attracting paranormal activity hunters looking for the apparition of lost and angry souls. The island would be so evil that some locals say that when an evil person dies, he wakes up in Poveglia, another kind of hell.

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