Elvire von Bardeleben
June 08, 2019
PARIS — How to reconcile the irreconcilable? That, in a nutshell, is the conundrum facing today's top pâtissiers. In this era of Instagram, image is everything. And so there's a demand, on the one hand, to make ever more beautiful cakes. But consumers are also increasingly health conscious, and new rules have banned the use of certain artificial dyes, forcing pastry chefs to tone things down, especially when it comes to colors.
One thing is for certain, it is necessary to be present on Instagram today. "It's a showcase for the world and it's free," says Yann Couvreur, a Parisian pâtissier. He sees it simply as a means of communication that can keep clients up-to-date on what's happening in the boutique. "It's not a megalomaniacal thing to submit your work to the eyes of the people," Couvreur insists.
As indispensable as it may be, many pastry chefs are also critical of social media for emphasizing image over taste. "What's scary about Instagram is that we often see very pretty cakes, but a cake should primarily be good," says star pastry chef Pierre Hermé, aka the king of the macaron.
Claire Damon, founder of a pair of boutiques called Des Gateaux et du Pain, thinks that because of social media, the new generation of pâtissiers will only focus on "dressing things up" to attract customers. She says that Instagram tends to deform reality.
"The price of a cake corresponds to the cost of the initial material and the time spent after," Damon explains. "A piece by Cedric Grolet (the Instagram-famous star pastry chef of Meurice) costs around 17 euros and is made by a palace brigade. A neighborhood bakery with 5-euro cakes and 35-hour-a-week employees can't reproduce his work."
But the general public, focused just on colors and visuals, can't always tell the difference, she argues. Media people fall into the same trap. Damon's latest creation, Vert Absinthe, is an outwardly simple cake inspired by the fragrance at the edge of a stream where she was walking one morning in Auvergne. The cake is all green, with lemon cream, tomato jelly, and candied angelica.
"For me, pastry is like fashion, like quality tailoring," she says. "It's complex to achieve but of sober and excellent workmanship. When a jacket is shiny, tight and full of details, it's cheap."
Pastry chef Sébastien Dégardin, who runs a pretty shop near the Pantheon in Paris, agrees that the key is craftsmanship." The piping bag, the blow of the spatula... These are techniques that not everyone can master," he says. "Leaving a trace of manual work, in these times when more and more pastry chefs use thermoformed molds that just fill, it makes the difference."
Celebrating the craft
This is the logic behind the so-called "instagrammable" desserts offered at Pierre Hermé"s tea rooms. This dessert is created under the eyes of the client, by a pastry chef who explains the tastes, textures, and temperatures of the ingredients he uses to make a cake live — for the client to film and post on social media if she so wishes. It's not the aesthetic, but the craft of the pâtissier that becomes instagrammable," Hermé explains.
According to him, the appearance of a cake should strongly announce what it contains. So to decorate his best-seller, the Isaphan, Hermé only uses strawberries and one rose petal. And, unsurprisingly, a square of chocolate decorates his Carrement chocolate dessert.
Yann Couvreur tends to keep things simple as well. He doesn't even put his name on the box. His trademark style — he doesn't use food coloring or preservatives, and strictly respects the rhythm of the seasons (citrus fruits in winter, red fruits in spring, etc.) — speaks for itself. "I would never use gold leaf, that useless kind of decoration that drives up the price of the cake," he says.
A Pierre Hermé macaron Easter basket — Photo: thepineapplechef via Instagram
That doesn't, of course, mean that Couvreur's cakes are austere. Quite the opposite, in fact. His rum babas are gleaming and generous in cream. The Paris-Brest are plump and saturated with hazelnuts.
"Making the materials speak"
Not all pastry chefs have such fixed ideas. Others might be tempted to use coloring, but have turned away from them due to the vagueness of French and European rules regarding dyes. Instead, they're turning to natural products, whose hues are both less varied and less resistant than chemical dyes.
"We must change the hard drive, review our entire way of thinking," admits Pierre Hermé, whose success was built largely on the chromatic declensions of his macaroons. The new colorings, tinted with things like beet powder, turmeric or chlorophyll, are duller. Customers don't tend to complain, the pastry chef explains. But sellers aren't entirely convinced.
"They have trouble distinguishing the different flavors," Hermé explains. "It's up to us to find new tricks, for example by putting pieces of almonds, pine nuts or sesame on them."
Frédéric Bau, creative director at the premium chocolate manufacturer Valrhona, sees the bans on dyes as a "wonderful" opportunity. "We can stop focusing on color," he says. "It'll force pastry chefs and chocolatiers to release their imagination, to relearn technical craft, to make the materials speak. For chocolate, for example, it can be crumbled, cracked, struck, scratched, powdered."
Striking a balance
But are consumers ready to go from everything — color-wise — to (almost) nothing? It's unclear. Sébastien Dégardin has stopped using titanium dioxide to whiten the topping of his vanilla cake (he uses cream instead). But he only sells half as much now.
As for historic pastry makers with solid traditions, the revolution won't happen overnight. At Fauchon, for example, the new executive pastry chef, François Daubinet (who arrived in 2018), must continue to offer cakes with the company's emblematic color: magenta. "I haven't yet found satisfactory natural dyes to reproduce it," he says. "That's one of my goals for 2020."
With other creations, though, Daubinet isn't afraid to experiment. He recently concocted a limited edition cake for Easter in the form of a vegetable leaf and using apple, quinoa, lemon, and shiso — more in tune with the times.
"We really live in a world of paradoxes," says Frédéric Bau, known alongside Cyril Lignac as one of the "kings of the cake." The two star in a television show on the M6 network that has been offering fans a chance to submit their pastries to be judged. This season they tried more than 450!
"Candidates are careful to use organic ingredients of good quality. But they can ruin the taste of their pastry by applying a hyper-sugary and fat frosting so that it shines," Bau explains. "In the end, it looks like hubcaps: it's beautiful and inedible!"
This leading French daily newspaper Le Monde ("The World") was founded in December 1944 in the aftermath of World War II. Today, it is distributed in 120 countries. In late 2010, a trio formed by Pierre Berge, Xavier Niel and Matthieu Pigasse took a controlling 64.5% stake in the newspaper.
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With loans and solar panels from China, the massive solar park has been opened a year and is already powering the surrounding areas. Now the Chinese supplier is pushing for an expansion.
October 18, 2021
CAUCHARI — Driving across the border with Chile into the northwest Argentine department of Susques, you may spot what looks like a black mass in the distance. Arriving at a 4,000-meter altitude in the municipality of Cauchari, what comes into view instead is an assembly of 960,000 solar panels. It is the world's highest photovoltaic (PV) park, which is also the second biggest solar energy facility in Latin America, after Mexico's Aguascalientes plant.
Spread over 800 hectares in an arid landscape, the Cauchari park has been operating for a year, and has so far turned sunshine into 315 megawatts of electricity, enough to power the local provincial capital of Jujuy through the national grid.
It has also generated some $50 million for the province, which Governor Gerardo Morales has allocated to building 239 schools.
Abundant sunshine, low temperatures
The physicist Martín Albornoz says Cauchari, which means "link to the sun," is exposed to the best solar radiation anywhere. The area has 260 days of sunshine, with no smog and relatively low temperatures, which helps keep the panels in optimal conditions.
Its construction began with a loan of more than $331 million from China's Eximbank, which allowed the purchase of panels made in Shanghai. They arrived in Buenos Aires in 2,500 containers and were later trucked a considerable distance to the site in Cauchari . This was a titanic project that required 1,200 builders and 10-ton cranes, but will save some 780,000 tons of CO2 emissions a year.
It is now run by 60 technicians. Its panels, with a 25-year guarantee, follow the sun's path and are cleaned twice a year. The plant is expected to have a service life of 40 years. Its choice of location was based on power lines traced in the 1990s to export power to Chile, now fed by the park.
Chinese engineers working in an office at the Cauchari park
Chinese want to expand
The plant belongs to the public-sector firm Jemse (Jujuy Energía y Minería), created in 2011 by the province's then governor Eduardo Fellner. Jemse's president, Felipe Albornoz, says that once Chinese credits are repaid in 20 years, Cauchari will earn the province $600 million.
The Argentine Energy ministry must now decide on the park's proposed expansion. The Chinese would pay in $200 million, which will help install 400,000 additional panels and generate enough power for the entire province of Jujuy.
The park's CEO, Guillermo Hoerth, observes that state policies are key to turning Jujuy into a green province. "We must change the production model. The world is rapidly cutting fossil fuel emissions. This is a great opportunity," Hoerth says.
The province's energy chief, Mario Pizarro, says in turn that Susques and three other provincial districts are already self-sufficient with clean energy, and three other districts would soon follow.
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