January 29, 2012
BERLIN - There have long been lively debates in Germany over the historical legacy of Frederick the Great. Some trace a direct path from the 18th century Prussian King, via Bismarck's militarism, to Hitler and the 20th century's worst catastrophes. Others instead tend to see a link between the 46-year reign of Frederick, a sort of philosopher-king and lifelong friend of the arts, and the best in modern civil democracy.
The embodiment of evil ambition or a grandfather of contemporary political enlightenment? It is a question made all the richer since he died just before the outbreak of the French Revolution, which historians often use to mark the dawn of our modern era.
This week, Germany marked the 300th birthday of Frederick the Great (Jan. 24, 1712- Aug. 17, 1786), and the historical debate burns on. But as with all long-serving rulers, there were many faces and facets to Frederick the...some quirky, and some still surprisingly relevant.
Frederick the know-it-all
The eldest son of the charming Queen Luise was neither a reactionary nor a revolutionary. It can also be said that, culturally speaking, there wasn't actually much real meat to Alte Fritz ("Old Fritz" is the nickname still used in Germany). His reputation as a "philosopher" is due in large part to his essay entitled "Anti-Machiavel." It, however, is little more than small-time moral quibbling about the far greater spirit captured by the Italian humanist Niccolò Machiavelli who – contrary to Frederick – took an in-depth look at all things political. Frederick's know-it-all-ism and righteousness are difficult to stomach. If he were alive today, he might be one of those self-important bloggers who believes it's up to him to set the world straight.
Frederick the dog lover
Let's start with the little things...on four legs. Frederick wasn't interested in dogs that served a purpose. He surrounded himself with miniature greyhounds, gave the luxury creatures names from Greek mythology, and referred to them as "birds on four legs."
And at the end of his life it was with his dogs that he wanted to be buried. That wish only came true some 20 years ago, when – in unified Germany -- his mortal remains were brought to Sanssouci in Potsdam (Berlin). On his gravestone? Images of potatoes in honor of the role he played in promoting the then despised vegetable.
Frederick the flute player and cake lover
Marzipan cake with chocolate and sour cherries was apparently his favorite thing to eat. From a genealogical perspective the comparison with his forbears is interesting: his grandfather held hunts that virtually decimated game in entire forests, after which the prey was cooked in an orgy of grilled meat. At the table of his father, a highly disciplined soldier king, the rule was you ate what was put in front of you. Along comes Frederick the Great, and it's all about sweet cake – is this really the ideal expression of Prussia?
And why of all things did Frederick have to play the flute, and name Johann Joachim Quantz his teacher and court composer? Quantz's style was a baroque version of techno. When he met one of music's greats, Johann Sebastian Bach, Frederick had the bright idea to outsmart him.
Frederick the wise guy
Frederick was also a smart aleck as regards the visual arts. Which brings us to Sanssouci. Even sworn admirers of the Prussian king admit that they'd take a classical country home or city palace any day over this pale pink rococo shell with its vaguely doll-house feel where Frederick – as much as this was possible for an absolute 18th century monarch – preferred to be alone.
Fredrick with his greyhounds eating marzipan cake at Sanssouci – we're supposed to admire this?
Frederick the Great
Now for what was great about him. There's no nit-picking about his abilities as a statesman and military commander. Under his reign, Prussia became a great European power. And Frederick risked much to get it into that position.
It says a lot about his good instincts and practical political sense that, after he came to the throne in 1740, he didn't pay much attention to what he'd written in "Anti-Machiavel" (which was published a few months after he became king), and went on to create a space for himself as one of the biggest power players on the European scene. This came at the cost of considerable personal effort and – here he's no different than any of his enemies or allies – without any consideration for the toll it would take on his people.
Germany is not Prussian
Prussia brought about the death of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, and Napoleon buried it. Progress? Modernization theorists say yes and speak of historical necessity while romantics remained unconvinced by the idea that history is supposed to have a direction.
Today's Germany is part of the "smaller German solution," but it isn't Prussian. The Prussian legacy is part of its cultural heritage. And within the European Union, Germany is part of a political picture that has some traits in common with a new "Reich." This European "Reich" depends on a certain amount of sovereignty being ceded by those who are a part of it. It would be bold to include Old Fritz in the gallery of ancestral portraits. It's probably better, however, to leave him where he is, at Sanssouci with his dogs.
Read the original article in German
Photo - Charlottenburg Palace
Die Welt ("The World") is a German daily founded in Hamburg in 1946, and currently owned by the Axel Springer AG company, Europe's largest publishing house. Now based in Berlin, Die Welt is sold in more than 130 countries. A Sunday edition called Welt am Sonntag has been published since 1948.
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Russia has decided to cut off relations with the Western military alliance. But Moscow says it was NATO who really wanted the break based on its own internal rationale.
Pavel Tarasenko and Sergei Strokan
October 20, 2021
MOSCOW — The Russian Foreign Ministry's announcement that the country's permanent representation to NATO would be shut down for an indefinite period is a major development. But from Moscow's viewpoint, there was little alternative.
These measures were taken in response to the decision of NATO on Oct. 6 to cut the number of personnel allowed in the Russian mission to the Western alliance by half. NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said the removal of accreditations was from eight employees of the Russian mission to NATO who were identified as undeclared employees of Russian intelligence." We have seen an increase in Russian malicious activity for some time now," Stoltenberg said.
The Russian Foreign Ministry called NATO's expulsion of Russian personnel a "ridiculous stunt," and Stoltenberg's words "the truest hypocrisy."
In announcing the complete shutdown in diplomacy between Moscow and NATO, the Russian Foreign Ministry added: "The 'Russian threat' is being hyped in strengthen the alliance's internal unity and create the appearance of its 'relevance' in modern geopolitical conditions."
The number of Russian diplomatic missions in Brussels has been reduced twice unilaterally by NATO in 2015 and 2018 - after the alliance's decision of April 1, 2014 to suspend all practical civilian and military cooperation between Russia and NATO in the wake of Russia's annexation of Crimea. Diplomats' access to the alliance headquarters and communications with its international secretariat was restricted, military contacts have frozen.
Yet the new closure of all diplomatic contacts is a perilous new low. Kommersant sources said that the changes will affect the military liaison mission of the North Atlantic alliance in Moscow, aimed at promoting the expansion of the dialogue between Russia and NATO. However, in recent years there has been no de facto cooperation. And now, as Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov has announced, the activities of the military liaison mission will be suspended. The accreditation of its personnel will be canceled on November 1.
NATO told RIA Novosti news service on Monday that it regretted Moscow's move. Meanwhile, among Western countries, Germany was the first to respond. "It would complicate the already difficult situation in which we are now and prolong the "ice age," German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas told reporters.
"Lavrov said on Monday, commenting on the present and future of relations between Moscow and the North Atlantic Alliance, "If this is the case, then we see no great need to continue pretending that any changes will be possible in the foreseeable future because NATO has already announced that such changes are impossible.
The suspension of activities of the Russian Permanent Mission to NATO, as well as the military liaison and information mission in Russia, means that Moscow and Brussels have decided to "draw a final line under the partnership relations of previous decades," explained Andrei Kortunov, director-general of the Russian Council on Foreign Affairs, "These relations began to form in the 1990s, opening channels for cooperation between the sides … but they have continued to steadily deteriorate over recent years."
Kortunov believes the current rupture was promoted by Brussels. "A new strategy for NATO is being prepared, which will be adopted at the next summit of the alliance, and the previous partnership with Russia does not fit into its concept anymore."
The existence and expansion of NATO after the end of the Cold War was the main reason for the destruction of the whole complex of relations between Russia and the West. Today, Russia is paying particular attention to marking red lines related to the further steps of Ukraine's integration into NATO. Vladimir Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov previously stated this, warning that in response to the alliance's activity in the Ukrainian direction, Moscow would take "active steps" to ensure its security.
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Kommersant ("The Businessman") was founded in 1989 as the first business newspaper in the Russia. Originally a weekly, Kommersant is now a daily newspaper with strong political and business coverage. It has been owned since 2006 by Alisher Usmanov, the director of a subsidiary of Gazprom.
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