Dai Qingli and Wei Lei
February 09, 2015
BEIJING — China is quite literally burying its history. A significant number of historic sites have paid a heavy price over the past two decades for China's rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, during which tens of thousands of historical monuments have been bulldozed.
And in the next six years, as many as 100 million Chinese people will migrate from rural areas to cities. Towering skyscrapers, massive street blocks, industrial parks, multi-lane highways and shopping malls have and will replace ancient temples, traditional courtyards, palaces and tombs. The Chinese sense of community is changing. In many cases, people can no longer walk to work or shop in their own neighborhoods. Driving has become a basic requirement — which means that cities are being built for cars instead of people.
As many as 900,000 villages have disappeared in the past 10 years, according to data from China's State Administration of Cultural Heritage (SACH). Apart from being able to attract tourism and accompanying revenue, the preservation of historical towns and relics can also make these places more attractive to would-be residents, boosting long-term competitiveness.
Big cities have mushroomed in every corner of the country, and they lack Chinese characteristics. President Xi Jinping indicated in the National New Urbanization Plan (2014-2020) published last year that conserving and recovering China's traditional architectural history would be a top priority in future development.
Historic buildings in Guangdong, southern China — Photo: Kevin Poh
In Beijing alone, more than 1,000 acres of historic alleys, traditional quadrangle houses, and street shops have been demolished since 1990. The destroyed area accounts for 40% of the capital's central area. That would be like replacing New York's Central Park and surrounding streets with new high-rise buildings. Beijing's lifestyle and history are the victims.
China's current economic model is losing momentum. Urbanization is vital for stimulating growth both domestically and in exports, which is all the more reason why Chinese cities must find a way to stand out. Not every city needs its own luxurious shopping mall, steel manufacturing plant, garment factories, or eight-lane highways.
Last year, Premier Li Keqiang signed an agreement with UNESCO to strengthen the role of culture in promoting sustainable urban development and in safeguarding China's historical sites. Protecting and restoring historic monuments can bring residents a sense of pride and identity, and in turn promote creativity and growth.
In addition, heritage tourism generates income. Last year the number of domestic tourism visits totaled 2.6 billion, a huge increase when compared to five years ago. The most popular tourist destinations are those that have obtained the title of UNESCO World Heritage sites. Many impoverished rural people have realized that one of the ways to catch up with the wealth of the affluent coastal regions is to preserve their ancestral heritage.
China and Italy have the most UNESCO World Heritage sites in the world — 47 each. In comparison, Egypt has only seven. As International Monetary Fund data show, making it to the World Heritage list can increase per capita income by 10.4% in certain areas, boosted by tourism.
The remaining question is how to balance historic preservation with growing numbers of visitors. China must avoid killing the goose that lays the golden eggs.
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October 21, 2021
ISMAILIA – Every year during the month of July, crowds gather in the mango farms of Ismailia, in northeastern Egypt, to pick the delectable summer fruit during its relatively short harvest season. But this year, as a result of erratic weather patterns throughout March and April, the usual bountiful mango harvest was severely affected with farmers witnessing a precipitous drop in yield. Some 300,000 farms saw an 80% decrease in productivity, leading to a supply shortage in the market and a corresponding 40% increase in the price of mangoes.
The effects of these climate fluctuations could have been mitigated by farmers, yet according to experts who spoke to Mada Masr, the agriculture minister failed to play a role in raising awareness among farmers and in providing agricultural guidance services.
Heatwaves kill crops
Mangoes are highly sensitive to changes in temperature. For germination to occur, the ideal temperature should be between 10 °C at night and 28 °C during the day, according to agricultural consultants. In Egypt, this weather pattern usually occurs in February. Mango trees then flower and the flowers turn into fruits that take 40 days to grow and be ready for harvest, according to Karam Suleiman, an agricultural engineer.
This year, however, according to mango farmers in Ismailia who spoke to Mada Masr, the beginning of the winter farming season experienced a sudden heatwave followed by another heatwave at the end of March. In both March and April, the temperature dipped to as low as 5 °C at night and as high as 25 °C during the day. Due to these erratic weather fluctuations, the mango flowers that develop into fruit fell before they could mature.
The typical average mango yield from one feddan (approx 1.03 acres or 0.40 hectares) ranges between 6 to 8 tons. This year however, the yield per feddan averaged between just 1 to 2 tons, according to several sources.
Frozen mango suppliers multiply purchases
A farm owner in Al-Tal al-Kebir on the Ismailia Desert Road, who spoke to Mada Masr on condition of anonymity, said that his farm produced approximately 35 tons of mangoes last year, whereas this year his yield did not exceed 4 tons. He added that many farmers in the surrounding area, which is famous for mango cultivation, experienced the same steep declines in yield.
The limited mango yield and the subsequent hike in prices has also prompted frozen mango suppliers to multiply their purchases from farms in order to capitalize and sell them next year at an even higher price, according to Ali Saqr, an agricultural engineer in a fruit export company, along with a number of other farm owners who spoke to Mada Masr. Mangos can stay frozen for up to two years.
Khaled Eweis, who buys mangoes and stores them in rented freezers then later sells the frozen mangoes to juice and dessert shops, explained to Mada Masr that juice shops usually use the Zebdia variety of mangoes, whereas dessert shops use Keitt mangoes. The latter is expected to be priced at 25 Egyptian pounds ($1.5) this year after having been sold for half the price at the same time last year.
Last year, Eweis bought Zebdia mangoes for 10–12 Egyptian pounds ($0.6–$0.7) per kilo then resold them for 16 ($1) after freezing them. This year, the Zebdia prices ranged from 17–21 ($1–$1.30) per kilo, and Eweis expects that the price after freezing will reach as high as 25 ($1.5).
The typical average mango yield from one feddan (approx 1.03 acres) ranges between 6 to 8 tons
Threat to water security
This is not the first time that mango production has been hit hard as a result of fluctuating weather patterns. A similar crisis in the mango harvest took place in 2018, and other crops, such as olives, potatoes, wheat, rice and cotton, have also been adversely affected over the last few years, according to Mohamed Fahem, the head of the government Climate Change Information Center. And human-induced changes to global weather patterns as a result of climate change point to increased agricultural challenges in the future.
The deadly heat waves, fires, hurricanes and other extreme weather events that have dominated headlines in recent years will only become more frequent in the coming decades, according to a United Nations report on climate change released in August. In its sixth assessment report, the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change called human-induced changes to global climate systems "unprecedented." While the report calls for drastic cuts to the global emission of greenhouse gases, much of the effects of climate change are already locked in for decades to come.
Among the areas most vulnerable to climate change is agriculture. A 2018 report titled Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Changes in Egypt found that climate change can have drastic effects on agriculture through changes in temperature, rainfall, CO2 levels and solar radiation. Meanwhile, a 2020 European Union report also found that climate change will pose a threat to global food production in the medium to long-term through projected changes in daily temperature, precipitation, wind, relative humidity and global radiation.
According to various studies, climate change gradually reduces the duration of spring, autumn and winter, which in turn affects the crops that are cultivated during those seasons. In Egypt in particular, the country's agricultural crop map will likely change as a result of a prolonged summer season, according to a study by former Agriculture Minister Ayman Abou Hadid, published in 2010 when he was heading the Center for Agricultural Studies. The study predicted that grain cultivation will gradually move north from Upper Egypt due to increases in winter temperatures, though it did not give a projected timeframe.
Cold and heat waves
Climate change also increases salinity levels in soil due to rising sea levels, which in turn renders the soil only suitable for crops that can handle high salinity yet still require intensive irrigation to mitigate the salinity levels. At the same time, Egypt is currently facing a threat to its water security due to the changes in rain patterns and droughts as well as the potential effects of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam.
According to Fahim, the increased cold and heat waves Egypt has experienced has led to the emergence of new, mutated varieties of pests and fungal diseases that are resistant to chemicals. For example, in 2018, aphids and whiteflies spread due to the shortened winter season, and the accumulation of these pests led to huge losses in potato and cotton yields. Meanwhile, palm trees were harmed due to the appearance of red palm weevils.
How farmers counter mango losses
The severe losses in the 2021 mango yield were hard to avoid, but is there a way to counter them?
Karam Suleiman, an agricultural engineer, believes that better methods of agriculture, irrigation and fertilization, along with raising awareness among farmers about the dangers of climate change and how to monitor weather fluctuations could succeed in mitigating such outcomes.
However, Egypt appears currently incapable of providing sufficient safety networks to farmers in order to enable them to confront the effects of climate change.
An example of this is apparent in the failure to enforce mechanisms for warning farmers about potential difficulties in upcoming farming seasons. In June, a report by the Center for Agricultural Studies warned about a decline of as much as 85% in the productivity of farms in Ismailia, where mangoes are mainly cultivated, as well as farms in Sharqiya, Suez and Beheira, due to climate change. However, this report only reached about 13 farmers and owners of mango farms, according to agricultural sources who spoke to Mada Masr.
Ahmed Asal, a mango farmer in Qantara in Ismailia, told Mada Masr that there has been no guidance from authorities in helping farmers understand climate change and how to respond to it. "No one told us what to do and we never received any compensation for our losses," Asal said.
Mangoes are highly sensitive to changes in temperature
Agriculture engineers must become climate engineers
Agricultural guidance is a service offered by the Agriculture Ministry to raise awareness and educate farmers about all aspects of farming. The service is usually provided through agricultural engineers who are based in the agricultural cooperatives that exist in every city and town.
Fahim, the head of the Climate Change Information Center, works to play a similar role through his Facebook page and, at times, on various TV channels and newspapers, by raising awareness about weather fluctuations and their effects on agriculture. However, his insights do not have a wide enough audience, particularly at a time when the agricultural guidance is dwindling despite the opening of the Agricultural Guidance Center in Qantara earlier this year under the auspices of the Agriculture Ministry.
"Agricultural guidance has been doing a good job lately, but only in the media, not on the ground," said Alaa Khairy,* an engineer at the Central Laboratory for Climate Change. "If they were really working on the ground, farmers would not have lost as much as they did."
More important crops like wheat will be next
What exacerbates the crisis is that those who are harmed the most are small farmers — those who have between 10 to 20 feddans of land — who cannot afford to take preemptive precautionary measures to mitigate erratic weather patterns nor hire experts who can help them make better decisions about how to handle sudden climate fluctuations. Those farmers also cannot afford to provide covers for their fruits during hot seasons, which is one way to prevent crop damage that is quite costly.
This year's crisis is expected to be repeated in the coming years due to the rapid consequences and effects of climate change on global food security. Aside from mangoes, the effects of climate change are projected to affect far more important crops, such as wheat, with reports showing global wheat crop losses due to heat and drought, a particularly worrisome development for Egypt — the largest importer of wheat in the world.
"In the coming period, agricultural engineers must become climate engineers as well," Suleiman said.
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