Future

Annals Of Technophobia: When Mark Twain Met The Typewriter

Twain was already world famous when he first saw a typewriter
Twain was already world famous when he first saw a typewriter
Michael S. Rosenwald

This is a story about love, hate and Mark Twain.

The object of Twain's desire (then resentment): the typewriter.

Twain first laid eyes on a "newfangled typing machine," as he called it, sometime in the early 1870s. He was, by then, on his way to becoming the world's most famous writer and humorist.

At the same time, the tools of writing were undergoing a profound transformation — from fountain pens, with their leaking and smudging ink, to the pleasant sound of tapping a key whose corresponding letter was magically stamped to paper.

The new technology did not emerge with the speed of a tweet.

According to an IBM history of the typewriter, one of the first American attempts to produce such a machine "looked very much like a butcher's block and, unfortunately, performed with about the same delicacy."

Christopher Latham Sholes, who was ultimately the first American to build a typewriter like the ones that would become commonplace, was stymied early on when the only key he could get to work was "W."

But by 1871, when Twain laid eyes on a Remington in a Boston store window, the machines were somewhat reliable — at least according to salesmen. Twain and a friend were given a demonstration.

"The salesman explained it to us," Twain later recalled, "showed us samples of its work, and said it could do fifty-seven words a minute — a statement which we frankly confessed that we did not believe. So he put his type-girl to work, and we timed her by the watch. She actually did the fifty-seven in sixty seconds. We were partly convinced, but said it probably couldn't happen again. But it did. We timed the girl over and over again, with the same result always: She won out."

I found that it was degrading my character.

Twain asked for a price: $125, he was told.

He bought it on the spot.

Twain recognized its utility as a writing tool almost immediately.

In a letter he typed to his brother that contained somewhat infrequent punctuation, Twain wrote: "the machine has several virtues i believe it will print faster than i can write. one may lean back in his chair & work it. it piles an awful stack of words on one page. it dont muss things or scatter ink blots around. of course it saves paper."

But Twain fell out of love rather swiftly.

"After a year or two I found that it was degrading my character," Twain later wrote — via dictation — in his autobiography. Instead of virtues, he found the machine to be "full of caprices, full of defects — devilish ones."

Twain gave his machine to his writer pal William Dean Howells.

"My morals began to improve," Twain said.

It's worth noting here that Twain was a bit of a fibber even when telling stories intended to be true. Anyway, Twain said Howells sent the machine back to him after just six months.

"I gave it away twice after that," Twain said, "but it wouldn't stay."

Twain tried to figure out who to unload it on next. He settled on a train coachman who, as Twain put it, "was very grateful, because he did not know the animal, and thought I was trying to make him wiser and better."

The coachman eventually traded it to someone Twain described as a heretic.

Twain would ultimately come back to the typewriter. His 1883 book, Life on the Mississippi, was the first literary work to be completed on the machine, according to scholars.

Still, Twain's thoughts about typewriters remain some of his most quoted lines, especially a letter he apparently sent Remington asking the company to cease and desist from using his name as an endorsement. "Please do not use my name in any way," Twain wrote. "I don't want people to know I own this curiosity-breeding little joker."

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Green

In Argentina, A Visit To World's Highest Solar Energy Park

With loans and solar panels from China, the massive solar park has been opened a year and is already powering the surrounding areas. Now the Chinese supplier is pushing for an expansion.

960,000 solar panels have been installed at the Cauchari park

Silvia Naishtat

CAUCHARI — Driving across the border with Chile into the northwest Argentine department of Susques, you may spot what looks like a black mass in the distance. Arriving at a 4,000-meter altitude in the municipality of Cauchari, what comes into view instead is an assembly of 960,000 solar panels. It is the world's highest photovoltaic (PV) park, which is also the second biggest solar energy facility in Latin America, after Mexico's Aguascalientes plant.

Spread over 800 hectares in an arid landscape, the Cauchari park has been operating for a year, and has so far turned sunshine into 315 megawatts of electricity, enough to power the local provincial capital of Jujuy through the national grid.


It has also generated some $50 million for the province, which Governor Gerardo Morales has allocated to building 239 schools.

Abundant sunshine, low temperatures

The physicist Martín Albornoz says Cauchari, which means "link to the sun," is exposed to the best solar radiation anywhere. The area has 260 days of sunshine, with no smog and relatively low temperatures, which helps keep the panels in optimal conditions.

Its construction began with a loan of more than $331 million from China's Eximbank, which allowed the purchase of panels made in Shanghai. They arrived in Buenos Aires in 2,500 containers and were later trucked a considerable distance to the site in Cauchari . This was a titanic project that required 1,200 builders and 10-ton cranes, but will save some 780,000 tons of CO2 emissions a year.

It is now run by 60 technicians. Its panels, with a 25-year guarantee, follow the sun's path and are cleaned twice a year. The plant is expected to have a service life of 40 years. Its choice of location was based on power lines traced in the 1990s to export power to Chile, now fed by the park.

Chinese engineers working in an office at the Cauchari park

Xinhua/ZUMA

Chinese want to expand

The plant belongs to the public-sector firm Jemse (Jujuy Energía y Minería), created in 2011 by the province's then governor Eduardo Fellner. Jemse's president, Felipe Albornoz, says that once Chinese credits are repaid in 20 years, Cauchari will earn the province $600 million.

The Argentine Energy ministry must now decide on the park's proposed expansion. The Chinese would pay in $200 million, which will help install 400,000 additional panels and generate enough power for the entire province of Jujuy.

The park's CEO, Guillermo Hoerth, observes that state policies are key to turning Jujuy into a green province. "We must change the production model. The world is rapidly cutting fossil fuel emissions. This is a great opportunity," Hoerth says.

The province's energy chief, Mario Pizarro, says in turn that Susques and three other provincial districts are already self-sufficient with clean energy, and three other districts would soon follow.

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